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Gene Review

MFA2  -  Mfa2p

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: Mating hormone A-factor 2, N1204, N1787, YNL145W
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High impact information on MFA2

  • In addition, in cells deleted for the XRN1 gene, which encodes a major 5' to 3' exonuclease in yeast, the MFA2 transcript is deadenylated normally but persists as a full-length mRNA lacking the 5' cap structure [1].
  • Analysis of point mutations obtained from this screen, and of additional lesions constructed in vitro, indicated that the MFA2 3'-untranslated region (UTR) contains sequences that specify rapid mRNA decay [2].
  • Poly(A) shortening rates are stimulated by the yeast a-mating factor (MFA2) RNA 3' UTR sequence, and this occurs by switching PAN from a distributive to a more processive enzyme [3].
  • UV-related histone hyperacetylation and chromatin remodeling in the MFA2 promoter depend on Gcn5p and partially on Swi2p, respectively [4].
  • Deletion of GCN5, but not of SWI2, impairs repair of DNA damage in the MFA2 promoter [4].

Biological context of MFA2

  • Two a-factor structural genes, MFA1 and MFA2, have been previously cloned with synthetic probes based on the a-factor amino acid sequence (A. Brake, C. Brenner, R. Najarian, P. Laybourn, and J. Merryweather, cited in M.-J. Gething [ed.], Protein transport and secretion, 1985) [5].
  • In this study, the effect of a prior UV irradiation on the removal of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) from the transcribed strand (TS) and non-transcribed strand (NTS) of the MFA2 gene in haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) cells was investigated [6].
  • How transcription-coupled (TCR) and global genome repair (GGR) operate at the transcriptionally active and/or repressed S. cerevisiae MFA2 locus, and how this relates to nucleosome positioning are considered [7].
  • The effect of Gcn5p's absence in reducing NER was local and UV stimulates Gcn5p-mediated histone acetylation at the repressed MFA2 promoter [7].
  • The system developed permits further dissection of the relationships between DNA repair, chromatin structure and transcription at the MFA2 locus [8].

Associations of MFA2 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of MFA2

  • We find that Pab1p can bind the MFA2 3'-UTR in a regulated manner to control MFA2 3'-UTR reporter translation [13].
  • Pub1p binds the MFA2 3'-UTR in a p38 MAPK/Hog1p-regulated manner in response to carbon source growth conditions [13].
  • MFA2 is specifically stabilized in a strain bearing a temperature-sensitive mutation in the SSA1 gene [14].

Regulatory relationships of MFA2

  • p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase/Hog1p regulates translation of the AU-rich-element-bearing MFA2 transcript [13].

Other interactions of MFA2

  • We employed the MFA2 and MET16 genes as models [7].
  • After UV irradiation Swi2p is partly responsible for facilitating access to restriction of DNA in the cores of the nucleosomes at the MFA2 promoter [7].
  • In Delta(gcn5), the MFA2 mRNA level is reduced by fourfold, while transcription from RPB2 is reduced only to 80 % [9].
  • The approach also revealed that RAD16 has a role in the repair of the TS when MFA2 is active [8].
  • The post-UV histone modifications and chromatin remodeling at the repressed MFA2 promoter do not activate MFA2 transcriptionally, nor do they require damage recognition by Rad4p or Rad14p [4].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of MFA2

  • Chromatin immunoprecipitation with anti-acetyl histone H3 (K9 and K14) and anti-acetyl histone H4 (K5, K8, K12, and K16) antibodies shows that Lys-9 and/or Lys-14 of histone H3, but not the relevant sites of histone H4 in nucleosomes at the repressed MFA2 promoter, are hyperacetylated after UV irradiation [4].
  • We confirmed repair trends seen using Southern blotting to examine kilobase size fragments, but were additionally able to elucidate subtle differences in repairing portions of the transcribed strand (TS) of MFA2 [8].


  1. Deadenylation of the unstable mRNA encoded by the yeast MFA2 gene leads to decapping followed by 5'-->3' digestion of the transcript. Muhlrad, D., Decker, C.J., Parker, R. Genes Dev. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Mutations affecting stability and deadenylation of the yeast MFA2 transcript. Muhlrad, D., Parker, R. Genes Dev. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. 3'-UTR-dependent deadenylation by the yeast poly(A) nuclease. Lowell, J.E., Rudner, D.Z., Sachs, A.B. Genes Dev. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. UV irradiation stimulates histone acetylation and chromatin remodeling at a repressed yeast locus. Yu, Y., Teng, Y., Liu, H., Reed, S.H., Waters, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. The a-factor pheromone of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is essential for mating. Michaelis, S., Herskowitz, I. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. RAD9, RAD24, RAD16 and RAD26 are required for the inducible nucleotide excision repair of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers from the transcribed and non-transcribed regions of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MFA2 gene. Yu, S., Teng, Y., Lowndes, N.F., Waters, R. Mutat. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Histone acetylation, chromatin remodelling, transcription and nucleotide excision repair in S. cerevisiae: studies with two model genes. Teng, Y., Yu, Y., Ferreiro, J.A., Waters, R. DNA Repair (Amst.) (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Excision repair at the level of the nucleotide in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MFA2 gene: mapping of where enhanced repair in the transcribed strand begins or ends and identification of only a partial rad16 requisite for repairing upstream control sequences. Teng, Y., Li, S., Waters, R., Reed, S.H. J. Mol. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae histone acetyltransferase Gcn5 has a role in the photoreactivation and nucleotide excision repair of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in the MFA2 gene. Teng, Y., Yu, Y., Waters, R. J. Mol. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Comparative analyses of the secondary structures of synthetic and intracellular yeast MFA2 mRNAs. Doktycz, M.J., Larimer, F.W., Pastrnak, M., Stevens, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Differential effects of translational inhibition in cis and in trans on the decay of the unstable yeast MFA2 mRNA. Beelman, C.A., Parker, R. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Spontaneous and photosensitiser-induced DNA single-strand breaks and formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase sensitive sites at nucleotide resolutionin the nuclear and mitochondrial DNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Meniel, V., Waters, R. Nucleic Acids Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase/Hog1p regulates translation of the AU-rich-element-bearing MFA2 transcript. Vasudevan, S., Garneau, N., Tu Khounh, D., Peltz, S.W. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. A yeast homologue of Hsp70, Ssa1p, regulates turnover of the MFA2 transcript through its AU-rich 3' untranslated region. Duttagupta, R., Vasudevan, S., Wilusz, C.J., Peltz, S.W. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
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