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Gene Review

HN  -  hemagglutinin-neuraminidase

Avian paramyxovirus 6

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Disease relevance of HN

  • Here we present the crystal structures of Newcastle disease virus HN alone and in complex with either an inhibitor or with the beta-anomer of sialic acid [1].
  • Solubilization of HN spikes can be achieved by treatment of virions with detergent and high salt concentrations [2].
  • The three-dimensional structure of the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) from a human parainfluenza virus is described at ca 2.0 A resolution, both in native form and in complex with three substrate analogues [3].
  • Thus, the influenza virus HA protein will not substitute for the NDV HN protein in cell-to-cell fusion [4].
  • The oligosaccharide side chains of HN were modified very slowly in chick cells, whereas those of the G glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus were rapidly processed to a complex form [5].

High impact information on HN


Chemical compound and disease context of HN

  • Monoclonal antibodies as functional probes of the HN glycoprotein of Newcastle disease virus: antigenic separation of the hemagglutinating and neuraminidase sites [9].
  • In addition, the products contain a polypeptide (67K) that migrates on polyacrylamide gels slightly faster than the HN protein from virions [10].
  • For human parainfluenza type 3, one bifunctional site on HN can carry out both binding and neuraminidase, and the receptor mimic, zanamivir, impairs viral entry by blocking receptor binding [11].
  • Using biotin-labeled peptides with sequences of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) F protein heptad repeat 2 (HR2) domain, we detected a specific interaction with amino acids 124 to 152 from the NDV HN protein [12].
  • The role of the individual cysteine residues in the formation of the mature, antigenic HN protein of Newcastle disease virus [13].

Biological context of HN

  • This site may provide both sialic acid binding and hydrolysis functions since there is no evidence for a second sialic acid binding site in HN [1].
  • Creation of the second binding site on hPIV1 HN, however, did not significantly affect the growth or fusion activity of the recombinant virus [14].
  • In this study, the role of the HN gene in NDV virulence was examined [15].
  • Loss of glycosylation does not affect the receptor recognition by HN glycoprotein of NDV [16].
  • Most paramyxovirus fusion (F) proteins require the coexpression of the homologous attachment (HN) protein to promote membrane fusion, consistent with the existence of a virus-specific interaction between the two proteins [17].

Anatomical context of HN

  • Signal recognition particle in the absence of membranes inhibited HN protein synthesis [18].
  • Comparisons of the trypsin digestion products of the HN protein made in the cell-free system with newly synthesized HN protein from infected cells showed that the cell-free product was in a conformation different from that of the pulse-labeled protein in infected cells [18].
  • These results show that a single amino acid change in the F(1) portion of the NDV F protein can alter the stringent requirement for HN protein expression in syncytium formation [19].
  • This antibody also inhibited the fusion of red blood cells to cells expressing F and HN proteins [20].
  • The major site of accumulation of mature HN with neuraminidase activity was the plasma membrane [5].

Associations of HN with chemical compounds

  • Second, trypsin digestion of Triton X-100-permeabilized membranes isolated from infected cells resulted in a 67,000-dalton trypsin resistant HN protein fragment [18].
  • It migrates in nonreducing gels and sediments in sucrose gradients at the rate expected for homodimeric HN [2].
  • It is membrane anchor-less, due to removal of a 14-kDa fragment from the NH2 terminus of HN [2].
  • The hPIV1 HN with Asp at position 523 hemagglutinated in the presence of BCX-2798, suggesting that the amino acid difference at position 523 is critical for the formation of a second binding site [14].
  • Biotin-labeled HR2 peptides bound to glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins containing these HN protein sequences but not to GST or to GST containing HN protein sequences corresponding to amino acids 49 to 118 [12].

Other interactions of HN

  • Monoclonal antibodies to the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN), fusion (F), polymerase and nucleocapsid polypeptides of Newcastle disease virus were prepared [21].
  • The existence of these transcripts yields a transcription map order of NP, P, M, F0, HN [22].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of HN

  • To verify the functional significance of the interaction, two point mutations in the HN protein gene, I133L and L140A, were made individually by site-specific mutagenesis to produce two mutant proteins [12].
  • Vaccination by the ocular route with a mixture of fowlpox recombinants expressing the fusion and HN proteins did not show added protection over that seen with the individual viruses [23].
  • The patterns of cross-reactivity of the HN proteins of these mutants against the collection of MAbs determined by Western blotting allowed the MAbs to be sorted into different groups [24].
  • In addition, the mobility of the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein, HN, was decreased on non-reduced SDS-PAGE in this mutant [25].
  • Immunoprecipitation with chicken anti-NDV serum confirmed authentic expression of the HN protein [23].


  1. Crystal structure of the multifunctional paramyxovirus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase. Crennell, S., Takimoto, T., Portner, A., Taylor, G. Nat. Struct. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Structure and function of a membrane anchor-less form of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase glycoprotein of Newcastle disease virus. Mirza, A.M., Sheehan, J.P., Hardy, L.W., Glickman, R.L., Iorio, R.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Structure of the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase from human parainfluenza virus type III. Lawrence, M.C., Borg, N.A., Streltsov, V.A., Pilling, P.A., Epa, V.C., Varghese, J.N., McKimm-Breschkin, J.L., Colman, P.M. J. Mol. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Complementation between avirulent Newcastle disease virus and a fusion protein gene expressed from a retrovirus vector: requirements for membrane fusion. Morrison, T., McQuain, C., McGinnes, L. J. Virol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Maturation of the envelope glycoproteins of Newcastle disease virus on cellular membranes. Schwalbe, J.C., Hightower, L.E. J. Virol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  6. Integration of membrane proteins into the endoplasmic reticulum requires GTP. Wilson, C., Connolly, T., Morrison, T., Gilmore, R. J. Cell Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  7. Newcastle disease virus expressing H5 hemagglutinin gene protects chickens against Newcastle disease and avian influenza. Veits, J., Wiesner, D., Fuchs, W., Hoffmann, B., Granzow, H., Starick, E., Mundt, E., Schirrmeier, H., Mebatsion, T., Mettenleiter, T.C., Römer-Oberdörfer, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Engineered viral vaccine constructs with dual specificity: avian influenza and Newcastle disease. Park, M.S., Steel, J., García-Sastre, A., Swayne, D., Palese, P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Monoclonal antibodies as functional probes of the HN glycoprotein of Newcastle disease virus: antigenic separation of the hemagglutinating and neuraminidase sites. Iorio, R.M., Bratt, M.A. J. Immunol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  10. Synthesis of Newcastle disease virus polypeptides in a wheat germ cell-free system. Clinkscales, C.W., Bratt, M.A., Morrison, T.G. J. Virol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  11. Paramyxovirus receptor-binding molecules: engagement of one site on the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein modulates activity at the second site. Porotto, M., Fornabaio, M., Greengard, O., Murrell, M.T., Kellogg, G.E., Moscona, A. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Interacting domains of the HN and F proteins of newcastle disease virus. Gravel, K.A., Morrison, T.G. J. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. The role of the individual cysteine residues in the formation of the mature, antigenic HN protein of Newcastle disease virus. McGinnes, L.W., Morrison, T.G. Virology (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Mutation at residue 523 creates a second receptor binding site on human parainfluenza virus type 1 hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein. Bousse, T., Takimoto, T. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein of Newcastle disease virus determines tropism and virulence. Huang, Z., Panda, A., Elankumaran, S., Govindarajan, D., Rockemann, D.D., Samal, S.K. J. Virol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Loss of N-linked glycosylation from the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein alters virulence of Newcastle disease virus. Panda, A., Elankumaran, S., Krishnamurthy, S., Huang, Z., Samal, S.K. J. Virol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Addition of N-glycans in the stalk of the Newcastle disease virus HN protein blocks its interaction with the F protein and prevents fusion. Melanson, V.R., Iorio, R.M. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Translation and membrane insertion of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase glycoprotein of Newcastle disease virus. Wilson, C., Gilmore, R., Morrison, T. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. A single amino acid change in the Newcastle disease virus fusion protein alters the requirement for HN protein in fusion. Sergel, T.A., McGinnes, L.W., Morrison, T.G. J. Virol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Evidence for mixed membrane topology of the newcastle disease virus fusion protein. McGinnes, L.W., Reitter, J.N., Gravel, K., Morrison, T.G. J. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. The characterization of monoclonal antibodies to Newcastle disease virus. Russell, P.H., Griffiths, P.C., Goswami, K.K., Alexander, D.J., Cannon, M.J., Russell, W.C. J. Gen. Virol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  22. Identification of the sequence content of four polycistronic transcripts synthesized in Newcastle disease virus infected cells. Wilde, A., McQuain, C., Morrison, T. Virus Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  23. Protection of chickens with a recombinant fowlpox virus expressing the Newcastle disease virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase gene. Edbauer, C., Weinberg, R., Taylor, J., Rey-Senelonge, A., Bouquet, J.F., Desmettre, P., Paoletti, E. Virology (1990) [Pubmed]
  24. Identification of haemagglutinin-neuraminidase antibody binding sites by Western blot analysis of antibody-resistant mutants and partial digest fragments of Newcastle disease virus. Samson, A.C., Nesbit, M., Lyon, A.M., Meulemans, G. J. Gen. Virol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  25. Temperature-sensitive mutant of Newcastle disease virus which has an altered nucleocapsid-associated protein. Samson, A.C., Chambers, P., Lee, C.M., Simon, E. J. Gen. Virol. (1981) [Pubmed]
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