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Gene Review

galK  -  galactokinase

Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Synonyms: ECK0746, JW0740, galA
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Disease relevance of galK


High impact information on galK


Chemical compound and disease context of galK


Biological context of galK

  • The deduced amino acid sequence of the galK gene product showed significant homologies to other prokaryotic and eukaryotic galactokinase sequences, whereas galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase did not show any sequence similarities to other known proteins [2].
  • Galactokinase activity measurements and analysis of gusA reporter gene fusions in strains containing the mutated promoters suggested that they were gal promoter-up mutations [15].
  • Galactokinase gene fusion experiments indicated that transcription of these genes is inducible by treatment with mitomycin and conforms to a classical model of SOS regulation involving simple LexA repression [16].

Associations of galK with chemical compounds


Other interactions of galK

  • The galKp promoter is inducible by galactose in the medium, while galEp constitutes a semiconstitutive promoter located in galK [11].
  • The sequence alterations also reduced the translational efficiency and transcription through lacZ as monitored by measurements of galactokinase synthesis from the downstream galK gene [19].
  • The termination of transcription in the dnaA gene of E. coli was analyzed using transcriptional fusions to the galactokinase gene, S1 nuclease mapping and quantification of translation products by Western blots [20].


  1. Lac repressor mRNA transcription terminates in vivo in the lac control region. Cone, K.C., Sellitti, M.A., Steege, D.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  2. Galactose utilization in Lactobacillus helveticus: isolation and characterization of the galactokinase (galK) and galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase (galT) genes. Mollet, B., Pilloud, N. J. Bacteriol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. Glutamate and cyclic AMP regulate the expression of galactokinase in Mycobacterium smegmatis. Raychaudhuri, S., Basu, M., Mandal, N.C. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Growth-rate-dependent regulation of ribosome synthesis in E. coli: expression of the lacZ and galK genes fused to ribosomal promoters. Miura, A., Krueger, J.H., Itoh, S., de Boer, H.A., Nomura, M. Cell (1981) [Pubmed]
  5. Gene expression of an Escherichia coli ribosomal RNA promoter fused to structural genes of the galactose operon. Ota, Y., Kikuchi, A., Cashel, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1979) [Pubmed]
  6. Nucleosome loss activates yeast downstream promoters in vivo. Han, M., Grunstein, M. Cell (1988) [Pubmed]
  7. The Leloir pathway: a mechanistic imperative for three enzymes to change the stereochemical configuration of a single carbon in galactose. Frey, P.A. FASEB J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Molecular characterization of the gallate dioxygenase from Pseudomonas putida KT2440. The prototype of a new subgroup of extradiol dioxygenases. Nogales, J., Canales, A., Jiménez-Barbero, J., García, J.L., Díaz, E. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Identification of a gene cluster for the formation of extracellular polysaccharide precursors in the chemolithoautotroph Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. Barreto, M., Jedlicki, E., Holmes, D.S. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Bifidobacterium longum endogalactanase liberates galactotriose from type I galactans. Hinz, S.W., Pastink, M.I., van den Broek, L.A., Vincken, J.P., Voragen, A.G. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. The gal genes for the Leloir pathway of Lactobacillus casei 64H. Bettenbrock, K., Alpert, C.A. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Role of DNA regions flanking the tryptophan promoter of Escherichia coli. II. Insertion of lac operator fragments. Herrin, G.L., Bennett, G.N. Gene (1984) [Pubmed]
  13. Stimulation in trans of synthesis of E. coli gal operon enzymes by lambdoid phages during low catabolite repression. Petit-Koskas, E., Contesse, G. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1976) [Pubmed]
  14. The NH2-terminal sequences of galactokinase from Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Schlesinger, D.H., Schell, M.A., Wilson, D.B. FEBS Lett. (1977) [Pubmed]
  15. Activation of silent gal genes in the lac-gal regulon of Streptococcus thermophilus. Vaughan, E.E., van den Bogaard , P.T., Catzeddu, P., Kuipers, O.P., de Vos , W.M. J. Bacteriol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Isolation of DNA damage-inducible promoters in Escherichia coli: regulation of polB (dinA), dinG, and dinH by LexA repressor. Lewis, L.K., Jenkins, M.E., Mount, D.W. J. Bacteriol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Studies on the regulation of the three enzymes of the Leloir pathway in cultured mammalian cells. I. Effect of substitution of galactose for glucose as the sole hexose in the medium in human diploid cell strains and in a rat hepatoma line. Stern, E.S., Krooth, R.S. J. Cell. Physiol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  18. Fusions of the Escherichia coli gyrA and gyrB control regions to the galactokinase gene are inducible by coumermycin treatment. Menzel, R., Gellert, M. J. Bacteriol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. The functional stability of the lacZ transcript is sensitive towards sequence alterations immediately downstream of the ribosome binding site. Petersen, C. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1987) [Pubmed]
  20. Transcription termination in the dnaA gene. Wende, M., Quinones, A., Diederich, L., Jueterbock, W.R., Messer, W. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1991) [Pubmed]
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