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Gene Review

dnaA  -  chromosomal replication initiator protein...

Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Synonyms: ECK3694, JW3679, hsm-2
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Disease relevance of dnaA


High impact information on dnaA

  • These and other observations are all consistent with the notion that hemimethylation in these two regions acts coordinately to ensure that every origin undergoes initiation once and only once per cell cycle; other possible roles for sequestration at dnaA are also considered [5].
  • DNA replication was studied in a dnaA(Ts) strain containing a plasmid with the dnaA+ gene under plac control [6].
  • Duplex opening by dnaA protein at novel sequences in initiation of replication at the origin of the E. coli chromosome [7].
  • Regulatory influences on the effective action of the initiator protein of E. coli (dnaA protein) include transcriptional activation of the origin, nucleotide binding and membrane attachment of the protein, and interactions leading to the introduction of helicases to start replication forks [8].
  • The dnaA gene in E. coli K-12 is required for the initiation of DNA replication [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of dnaA


Biological context of dnaA


Anatomical context of dnaA


Associations of dnaA with chemical compounds

  • A 54 kD and a 91 kD polypeptide appear to be coded for by the dnaA and gyrB genes, respectively; the 91 kD protein is encoded on a region in which coumermycin sensitivity maps and is with respect to electrophoretic behavior identical to subunit B of DNA gyrase [21].
  • DNAase protection experiments showed that the dnaA protein binds to DNA in the region of the two dnaA promoters [9].
  • The dnaA mutations that suppress the dnaZ(TS) defect are designated dnaA(SUZ, CS) [22].
  • An improved, rapid procedure for purifying dnaA protein from overproducing cells appears to depend on its coprecipitation with phospholipids and depends on solubilization by guanidine HCl [23].
  • The activity of the mutated dnaA protein at the tryptophan attenuator and its activity as initiator for chromosome replication decreased gradually with increasing temperature [11].

Physical interactions of dnaA


Regulatory relationships of dnaA

  • Using translational fusions to lacZ we found that DNA damage caused by mitomycin C induces expression of the dnaA and dnaQ genes [26].
  • In exponentially growing cells, dnaN and recF are expressed predominantly from the dnaA promoters [27].
  • Particular mutations in the rpoB gene were able to suppress negative effects that certain dnaA mutations had on the replication of lambda plasmids; this suppression was allele-specific [28].
  • dnaA protein regulates transcriptions of the rpoH gene of Escherichia coli [24].

Other interactions of dnaA

  • The rpmH gene and the dnaA gene are transcribed in the clockwise and counter-clockwise direction, respectively [15].
  • One such suppressor, named sueA77, was finely mapped and found to be located at 82 min on the E. coli chromosome, between dnaA and recF, and within the dnaN gene [Sakakibara, Y. & Mizukami, T. (1980) Mol. Gen. Genet. 178, 541-553] [29].
  • There are at least three dnaN promoters located in the second half of the dnaA coding region [30].
  • Termination of the Escherichia coli asnC transcript. The DnaA protein/dnaA box complex blocks transcribing RNA polymerase [31].
  • The decrease in the expression of dnaA was measured in vivo using a dnaA-lacZ gene fusion [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of dnaA


  1. Conservation of genes and their organization in the chromosomal replication origin region of Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. Ogasawara, N., Moriya, S., von Meyenburg, K., Hansen, F.G., Yoshikawa, H. EMBO J. (1985) [Pubmed]
  2. Growth of Salmonella bacteriophage P22 in Escherichia coli dna(Ts) mutants. Schanda-Mulfinger, U.E., Schmieger, H. J. Bacteriol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  3. Structure of the dnaA region of Micrococcus luteus: conservation and variations among eubacteria. Fujita, M.Q., Yoshikawa, H., Ogasawara, N. Gene (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Structure of the dnaA and DnaA-box region in the Mycoplasma capricolum chromosome: conservation and variations in the course of evolution. Fujita, M.Q., Yoshikawa, H., Ogasawara, N. Gene (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. E. coli oriC and the dnaA gene promoter are sequestered from dam methyltransferase following the passage of the chromosomal replication fork. Campbell, J.L., Kleckner, N. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. The DnaA protein determines the initiation mass of Escherichia coli K-12. Løbner-Olesen, A., Skarstad, K., Hansen, F.G., von Meyenburg, K., Boye, E. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Duplex opening by dnaA protein at novel sequences in initiation of replication at the origin of the E. coli chromosome. Bramhill, D., Kornberg, A. Cell (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. A model for initiation at origins of DNA replication. Bramhill, D., Kornberg, A. Cell (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Autoregulation of the DNA replication gene dnaA in E. coli K-12. Braun, R.E., O'Day, K., Wright, A. Cell (1985) [Pubmed]
  10. Demonstration by genetic suppression of interaction of GroE products with many proteins. Van Dyk, T.K., Gatenby, A.A., LaRossa, R.A. Nature (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Effect of dnaA and rpoB mutations on attenuation in the trp operon of Escherichia coli. Atlung, T., Hansen, F.G. J. Bacteriol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  12. Membrane attachment activates dnaA protein, the initiation protein of chromosome replication in Escherichia coli. Yung, B.Y., Kornberg, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  13. Inhibition of thymidine transport in dnaA mutants of Escherichia coli. Mizushima, T., Yokoyama, K., Mima, S., Tsuchiya, T., Sekimizu, K. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Coumermycin A1: A preferential inhibitor of replicative DNA synthesis in Escherichia coli. I. In vivo characterization. Ryan, M.J. Biochemistry (1976) [Pubmed]
  15. The nucleotide sequence of the dnaA gene promoter and of the adjacent rpmH gene, coding for the ribosomal protein L34, of Escherichia coli. Hansen, F.G., Hansen, E.B., Atlung, T. EMBO J. (1982) [Pubmed]
  16. DNA gyrase on the bacterial chromosome. Oxolinic acid-induced DNA cleavage in the dnaA-gyrB region. Franco, R.J., Drlica, K. J. Mol. Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. oriC region and replication termination site, dif, of the Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris 17 chromosome. Yen, M.R., Lin, N.T., Hung, C.H., Choy, K.T., Weng, S.F., Tseng, Y.H. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Structural analysis of the dnaA and dnaN genes of Escherichia coli. Ohmori, H., Kimura, M., Nagata, T., Sakakibara, Y. Gene (1984) [Pubmed]
  19. Altered biological properties of cell membranes in Escherichia coli dnaA and seqA mutants. Wegrzyn, A., Wróbel, B., Wegrzyn, G. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Alteration in levels of unsaturated fatty acids in mutants of Escherichia coli defective in DNA replication. Suzuki, E., Kondo, T., Makise, M., Mima, S., Sakamoto, K., Tsuchiya, T., Mizushima, T. Biol. Pharm. Bull. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Characterization of the dnaA, gyrB and other genes in the dnaA region of the Escherichia coli chromosome on specialized transducing phages lambda tna. Hansen, F.G., von Meyenburg, K. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1979) [Pubmed]
  22. Interaction of the Escherichia coli dnaA initiation protein with the dnaZ polymerization protein in vivo. Walker, J.R., Ramsey, J.A., Haldenwang, W.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1982) [Pubmed]
  23. The dnaA protein of Escherichia coli. Abundance, improved purification, and membrane binding. Sekimizu, K., Yung, B.Y., Kornberg, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  24. dnaA protein regulates transcriptions of the rpoH gene of Escherichia coli. Wang, Q.P., Kaguni, J.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  25. Essential role of the gyrB gene product in the transcriptional event coupled to dnaA-dependent initiation of Escherichia coli chromosome replication. Filutowicz, M., Jonczyk, P. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1981) [Pubmed]
  26. Expression of the dnaN and dnaQ genes of Escherichia coli is inducible by mitomycin C. Kaasch, M., Kaasch, J., Quiñones, A. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1989) [Pubmed]
  27. Stationary phase induction of dnaN and recF, two genes of Escherichia coli involved in DNA replication and repair. Villarroya, M., Pérez-Roger, I., Macián, F., Armengod, M.E. EMBO J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. DnaA-stimulated transcriptional activation of orilambda: Escherichia coli RNA polymerase beta subunit as a transcriptional activator contact site. Szalewska-Pałasz, A., Wegrzyn, A., Błaszczak, A., Taylor, K., Wegrzyn, G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  29. Functional cooperation of the dnaE and dnaN gene products in Escherichia coli. Kuwabara, N., Uchida, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  30. Transcriptional organization of the dnaN and recF genes of Escherichia coli K-12. Armengod, M.E., García-Sogo, M., Lambíes, E. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  31. Termination of the Escherichia coli asnC transcript. The DnaA protein/dnaA box complex blocks transcribing RNA polymerase. Schaefer, C., Messer, W. Gene (1988) [Pubmed]
  32. DNA methylation differentially enhances the expression of one of the two E. coli dnaA promoters in vivo and in vitro. Braun, R.E., Wright, A. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1986) [Pubmed]
  33. Titration of DnaA protein by oriC DnaA-boxes increases dnaA gene expression in Escherichia coli. Hansen, F.G., Koefoed, S., Sørensen, L., Atlung, T. EMBO J. (1987) [Pubmed]
  34. Chromosome structure of Escherichia coli mutants temperature sensitive for deoxyribonucleic acid replication. Cunningham, R.P., Berger, H. J. Bacteriol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  35. Sequence analysis of a 34.7-kb DNA segment from the genome of Buchnera aphidicola (endosymbiont of aphids) containing groEL, dnaA, the atp operon, gidA, and rho. Clark, M.A., Baumann, L., Baumann, P. Curr. Microbiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  36. Organization and localization of the dnaA and dnaK gene regions on the multichromosomal genome of Burkholderia multivorans ATCC 17616. Nagata, Y., Matsuda, M., Komatsu, H., Imura, Y., Sawada, H., Ohtsubo, Y., Tsuda, M. J. Biosci. Bioeng. (2005) [Pubmed]
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