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Gene Review

pykA  -  pyruvate kinase II

Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Synonyms: ECK1855, JW1843
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Disease relevance of pykA


High impact information on pykA

  • The modes of substrate binding have been deduced by analogy to D-Ala-D-Ala ligase and to pyruvate kinase [4].
  • The reaction in which AP4 was formed was greatly stimulated by the addition of phosphoenolpyruvate plus pyruvate kinase and strongly inhibited by ADP and by CoA plus succinate [5].
  • The mode of binding resembles closely the previously proposed PEP substrate binding mode, inferred by the homology of the structure (but not sequence homology) to pyruvate kinase [6].
  • Frur mediates catabolite activation of pyruvate kinase (pykF) gene expression in Escherichia coli [7].
  • We examined anaerobic E. coli cultures because of reports that in anaerobiosis, pyruvate kinase represents the major route for nucleoside triphosphate synthesis in the absence of nucleoside diphosphokinase [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of pykA


Biological context of pykA

  • The rate of hydrolysis was rather insensitive to the depletion of ADP in the assay medium by an ATP regenerating system (phospho-enol-pyruvate (PEP) and pyruvate kinase (PK)) [11].
  • Citrate transport alters the intracellular balance of metal ions which in turn could trigger a sophisticated series of metabolic events leading to reduction of the activities of the pyruvate kinase and phosphofructokinase (PFK), the regulatory enzymes of glycolysis [12].

Associations of pykA with chemical compounds

  • In the PTS- glucose+ host background, overexpression of tktA caused a further 3.7-fold increase in carbon flow, while inactivation of pykA and pykF caused a 5.8-fold increase [13].
  • The activity of pyruvate kinase of Leishmania mexicana is allosterically regulated by fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (F-2,6-P(2)), contrary to the pyruvate kinases from other eukaryotes that are usually stimulated by fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (F-1,6-P(2)) [14].
  • Pyruvate kinase is also weakly activated by AMP and inhibited by fructose-1,6-bisphosphate [3].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of pykA


  1. Glucose metabolism in Chlamydia trachomatis: the 'energy parasite' hypothesis revisited. Iliffe-Lee, E.R., McClarty, G. Mol. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Cloning and expression of the Zymomonas mobilis pyruvate kinase gene in Escherichia coli. Steiner, P., Fussenegger, M., Bailey, J.E., Sauer, U. Gene (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Pyruvate kinase from Lactobacillus bulgaricus: possible regulation by competition between strong and weak effectors. Le Bras, G., Garel, J.R. Biochimie (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Swiveling-domain mechanism for enzymatic phosphotransfer between remote reaction sites. Herzberg, O., Chen, C.C., Kapadia, G., McGuire, M., Carroll, L.J., Noh, S.J., Dunaway-Mariano, D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate is synthesized by the histidine alpha 142----asparagine mutant of Escherichia coli succinyl-CoA synthetase. Luo, G.X., Nishimura, J.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Pyruvate site of pyruvate phosphate dikinase: crystal structure of the enzyme-phosphonopyruvate complex, and mutant analysis. Herzberg, O., Chen, C.C., Liu, S., Tempczyk, A., Howard, A., Wei, M., Ye, D., Dunaway-Mariano, D. Biochemistry (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Frur mediates catabolite activation of pyruvate kinase (pykF) gene expression in Escherichia coli. Bledig, S.A., Ramseier, T.M., Saier, M.H. J. Bacteriol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Effects of T4 phage infection and anaerobiosis upon nucleotide pools and mutagenesis in nucleoside diphosphokinase-defective Escherichia coli strains. Zhang, X., Lu, Q., Inouye, M., Mathews, C.K. J. Bacteriol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Divergent binding sites in pyruvate kinases I and II from Escherichia coli. Valentini, G., Stoppini, M., Iadarola, P., Malcovati, M., Ferri, G., Speranza, M.L. Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate-activated pyruvate kinase from Escherichia coli. Nature of bonds involved in the allosteric mechanism. Speranza, M.L., Valentini, G., Malcovati, M. Eur. J. Biochem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Modulation of proton pumping efficiency in bacterial ATP synthases. Turina, P., Rebecchi, A., D'Alessandro, M., Anefors, S., Melandri, B.A. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Suppressed acid formation by cofeeding of glucose and citrate in Bacillus cultures: emergence of pyruvate kinase as a potential metabolic engineering site. Goel, A., Lee, J., Domach, M.M., Ataai, M.M. Biotechnol. Prog. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. A direct comparison of approaches for increasing carbon flow to aromatic biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. Gosset, G., Yong-Xiao, J., Berry, A. J. Ind. Microbiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. The putative effector-binding site of Leishmania mexicana pyruvate kinase studied by site-directed mutagenesis. Hannaert, V., Yernaux, C., Rigden, D.J., Fothergill-Gilmore, L.A., Opperdoes, F.R., Michels, P.A. FEBS Lett. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Molecular cloning of the genes for pyruvate kinase of two bacilli, Bacillus psychrophilus and Bacillus licheniformis, and comparison of the properties of the enzymes produced in Escherichia coli. Tanaka, K., Sakai, H., Ohta, T., Matsuzawa, H. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. (1995) [Pubmed]
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