The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Leishmania


Psychiatry related information on Leishmania


High impact information on Leishmania

  • (2004) describe the identification of an insect galectin as the receptor for the stage-specific Leishmania adhesin lipophosphoglycan (LPG) [7].
  • Methotrexate-resistant Leishmania tropica contain two separate regions of DNA amplification, one encoding the bifunctional thymidylate synthetase-dihydrofolate reductase (TS-DHFR) characteristic of protozoans and the other of yet unknown function [8].
  • Unstable DNA amplifications in methotrexate-resistant Leishmania consist of extrachromosomal circles which relocalize during stabilization [8].
  • RNA has been isolated from highly purified kinetoplast-mitochondrial fractions of Leishmania tarentolae, and shown to consist of two major species that sediment at 9S and 12S in sucrose and also several additional low molecular weight species which were visualized by gel electrophoresis [9].
  • These data uncover a new immune evasion strategy, whereby Leishmania differentially modulates CD40-engaged, reciprocally functioning signaling modules, and provide a new conceptual framework for immune homeostasis [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Leishmania


Biological context of Leishmania


Anatomical context of Leishmania


Associations of Leishmania with chemical compounds

  • We now describe the stable expression of a selectable marker, the gene for neomycin resistance (neor) in Leishmania enriettii [24].
  • We report here results which suggest that in Leishmania promastigotes there are either distinct EHNA-sensitive dyneins or different conformational states of a single dynein involved in the cilia-like and flagella-like waveforms and in the propagation of flagellar waves from tip-to-base and from base-to-tip [25].
  • The dinitroaniline herbicide trifluralin (alpha, alpha, alpha-trifluoro-2,6-dinitro-N, N-dipropyl-p-toluidine), at micromolar concentrations, selectively inhibited both proliferation and differentiation of the parasitic protozoan Leishmania mexicana amazonensis [26].
  • Lethal effect of phenothiazine neuroleptics on the pathogenic protozoan Leishmania donovani [27].
  • Viable Leishmania promastigotes and amastigotes were detected by epifluorescence microscopy with fluorescein diacetate being used to mark living parasites and the nucleic acid-binding compound ethidium bromide to stain dead cells [28].

Gene context of Leishmania

  • Susceptibility to leishmaniasis is controlled by multiple genes [29].
  • Distinct genetic control of parasite elimination, dissemination, and disease after Leishmania major infection was established [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Leishmania




  1. IL-13 effector functions. Wynn, T.A. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Protection against cutaneous leishmaniasis resulting from bites of uninfected sand flies. Kamhawi, S., Belkaid, Y., Modi, G., Rowton, E., Sacks, D. Science (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. A common major surface antigen on amastigotes and promastigotes of Leishmania species. Colomer-Gould, V., Glvao Quintao, L., Keithly, J., Nogueira, N. J. Exp. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. Human natural resistance-associated macrophage protein: cDNA cloning, chromosomal mapping, genomic organization, and tissue-specific expression. Cellier, M., Govoni, G., Vidal, S., Kwan, T., Groulx, N., Liu, J., Sanchez, F., Skamene, E., Schurr, E., Gros, P. J. Exp. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Interferon gamma signaling alters the function of T helper type 1 cells. Tau, G.Z., von der Weid, T., Lu, B., Cowan, S., Kvatyuk, M., Pernis, A., Cattoretti, G., Braunstein, N.S., Coffman, R.L., Rothman, P.B. J. Exp. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. The relationship of American visceral leishmaniasis to ABO blood group type. Evans, T., Naidu, T.G., de Alencar, J.E., Pearson, R.D. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1984) [Pubmed]
  7. Flypaper for parasites. Beverley, S.M., Dobson, D.E. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Unstable DNA amplifications in methotrexate-resistant Leishmania consist of extrachromosomal circles which relocalize during stabilization. Beverley, S.M., Coderre, J.A., Santi, D.V., Schimke, R.T. Cell (1984) [Pubmed]
  9. Kinetoplast RNA of Leishmania tarentolae. Simpson, L., Simpson, A.G. Cell (1978) [Pubmed]
  10. Reciprocal CD40 signals through p38MAPK and ERK-1/2 induce counteracting immune responses. Mathur, R.K., Awasthi, A., Wadhone, P., Ramanamurthy, B., Saha, B. Nat. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Hydrogen peroxide-mediated toxicity for Leishmania donovani chagasi promastigotes. Role of hydroxyl radical and protection by heat shock. Zarley, J.H., Britigan, B.E., Wilson, M.E. J. Clin. Invest. (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Nodular lymphangitis: a distinctive but often unrecognized syndrome. Kostman, J.R., DiNubile, M.J. Ann. Intern. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Biochemical genetic analysis of formycin B action in Leishmania donovani. Robinson, N., Kaur, K., Emmett, K., Iovannisci, D.M., Ullman, B. J. Biol. Chem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  14. Methotrexate-resistant Leishmania donovani genetically deficient in the folate-methotrexate transporter. Kaur, K., Coons, T., Emmett, K., Ullman, B. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  15. The effect of BCG on experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis in mice. Weintraub, J., Weinbaum, F.I. J. Immunol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  16. Control of tubulin gene expression in the parasitic protozoan Leishmania enriettii. Landfear, S.M., Wirth, D.F. Nature (1984) [Pubmed]
  17. Genetic susceptibility to Leishmania: IL-12 responsiveness in TH1 cell development. Güler, M.L., Gorham, J.D., Hsieh, C.S., Mackey, A.J., Steen, R.G., Dietrich, W.F., Murphy, K.M. Science (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Cloning and expression of a Leishmania donovani gene instructed by a peptide isolated from major histocompatibility complex class II molecules of infected macrophages. Campos-Neto, A., Soong, L., Cordova, J.L., Sant'Angelo, D., Skeiky, Y.A., Ruddle, N.H., Reed, S.G., Janeway, C., McMahon-Pratt, D. J. Exp. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. CC chemokine receptor (CCR)2 is required for langerhans cell migration and localization of T helper cell type 1 (Th1)-inducing dendritic cells. Absence of CCR2 shifts the Leishmania major-resistant phenotype to a susceptible state dominated by Th2 cytokines, b cell outgrowth, and sustained neutrophilic inflammation. Sato, N., Ahuja, S.K., Quinones, M., Kostecki, V., Reddick, R.L., Melby, P.C., Kuziel, W.A., Ahuja, S.S. J. Exp. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Immune adherence-mediated opsonophagocytosis: the mechanism of Leishmania infection. Domínguez, M., Toraño, A. J. Exp. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Killing of intracellular Leishmania donovani by lymphokine-stimulated human mononuclear phagocytes. Evidence that interferon-gamma is the activating lymphokine. Murray, H.W., Rubin, B.Y., Rothermel, C.D. J. Clin. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  22. Modulation of in vitro monocyte cytokine responses to Leishmania donovani. Interferon-gamma prevents parasite-induced inhibition of interleukin 1 production and primes monocytes to respond to Leishmania by producing both tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin 1. Reiner, N.E., Ng, W., Wilson, C.B., McMaster, W.R., Burchett, S.K. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. Rab5-mediated endosome-endosome fusion regulates hemoglobin endocytosis in Leishmania donovani. Singh, S.B., Tandon, R., Krishnamurthy, G., Vikram, R., Sharma, N., Basu, S.K., Mukhopadhyay, A. EMBO J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Stable expression of the bacterial neor gene in Leishmania enriettii. Laban, A., Tobin, J.F., Curotto de Lafaille, M.A., Wirth, D.F. Nature (1990) [Pubmed]
  25. Differential inhibition by erythro-9-[3-(2-hydroxynonyl)]adenine of flagella-like and cilia-like movement of Leishmania promastigotes. Alexander, J., Burns, R.G. Nature (1983) [Pubmed]
  26. Inhibition of leishmanias but not host macrophages by the antitubulin herbicide trifluralin. Chan, M.M., Fong, D. Science (1990) [Pubmed]
  27. Lethal effect of phenothiazine neuroleptics on the pathogenic protozoan Leishmania donovani. Pearson, R.D., Manian, A.A., Harcus, J.L., Hall, D., Hewlett, E.L. Science (1982) [Pubmed]
  28. Fluorogenic substrate detection of viable intracellular and extracellular pathogenic protozoa. Jackson, P.R., Pappas, M.G., Hansen, B.D. Science (1985) [Pubmed]
  29. Genetic susceptibility to infectious disease: lessons from mouse models of leishmaniasis. Lipoldová, M., Demant, P. Nat. Rev. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  30. Distinct genetic control of parasite elimination, dissemination, and disease after Leishmania major infection. Kurey, I., Kobets, T., Havelková, H., Slapnicková, M., Quan, L., Trtková, K., Grekov, I., Svobodová, M., Stassen, A.P., Hutson, A., Demant, P., Lipoldová, M. Immunogenetics. (2009) [Pubmed]
  31. Disruption of CD40-CD40 ligand interactions results in an enhanced susceptibility to Leishmania amazonensis infection. Soong, L., Xu, J.C., Grewal, I.S., Kima, P., Sun, J., Longley,, B.J., Ruddle, N.H., McMahon-Pratt, D., Flavell, R.A. Immunity (1996) [Pubmed]
  32. Deletion of a conserved Il4 silencer impairs T helper type 1-mediated immunity. Ansel, K.M., Greenwald, R.J., Agarwal, S., Bassing, C.H., Monticelli, S., Interlandi, J., Djuretic, I.M., Lee, D.U., Sharpe, A.H., Alt, F.W., Rao, A. Nat. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  33. CD4+ effector cells default to the Th2 pathway in interferon gamma-deficient mice infected with Leishmania major. Wang, Z.E., Reiner, S.L., Zheng, S., Dalton, D.K., Locksley, R.M. J. Exp. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  34. Interleukin 10 production correlates with pathology in human Leishmania donovani infections. Ghalib, H.W., Piuvezam, M.R., Skeiky, Y.A., Siddig, M., Hashim, F.A., el-Hassan, A.M., Russo, D.M., Reed, S.G. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  35. Defective CCR7 expression on dendritic cells contributes to the development of visceral leishmaniasis. Ato, M., Stäger, S., Engwerda, C.R., Kaye, P.M. Nat. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  36. Molecular cloning and characterization of the immunologically protective surface glycoprotein GP46/M-2 of Leishmania amazonensis. Lohman, K.L., Langer, P.J., McMahon-Pratt, D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  37. A trypanothione-dependent glyoxalase I with a prokaryotic ancestry in Leishmania major. Vickers, T.J., Greig, N., Fairlamb, A.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  38. PTR1: a reductase mediating salvage of oxidized pteridines and methotrexate resistance in the protozoan parasite Leishmania major. Bello, A.R., Nare, B., Freedman, D., Hardy, L., Beverley, S.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities