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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Esotropia

  • We describe an X-linked disorder of the CNS, characterized by onset, in infancy, of hypotonia, ataxia, sensorineural deafness, developmental delay, esotropias, and optic atrophy, and by a progressive course leading to death in childhood [1].
  • One monkey that previously had been shown to have a large-angle esotropia during development exhibited only exophoria, and in a final monkey in which large-angle esotropia was found during development, the strabismus had resolved [2].
  • RESULTS: After initially successful strabismus surgery, both patients developed recurrent esotropia with diplopia, which resolved on suboccipital decompression [3].
  • Patients who developed changes in preoperative strabismus were more likely to develop increased esotropia and/or restrictive hypertropia [4].
  • Congenital esotropia was associated with prematurity (odds ratio [OR], 11.5; 95% CI, 3.4-39.2), a birth weight less than 2500 grams (OR, 4.6; 95% CI, 1.7-12.9), a low Apgar score at 1 minute (OR, 4.3; 95% CI, 1.7-11.2) and at 5 minutes (OR, 6.3; 95% CI, 1.3-30.7), and a family history of strabismus (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.5-8.3) [5].

Psychiatry related information on Esotropia


High impact information on Esotropia

  • Four had structural anomalies including: ASD (n = 1); ptosis and esotropia (n = 1); labial fusion (n = 1); and urogenital sinus, dysplastic kidneys, and hydrometrocolpos (n = 1) [8].
  • PALs were effective in slowing progression in these children, with statistically significant 3-year treatment effects (mean +/- SE) for those with larger lags in combination with near esophoria (PAL - SVL progression = -1.08 D - [-1.72 D] = 0.64 +/- 0.21 D), shorter reading distances (0.44 +/- 0.20 D), or lower baseline myopia (0.48 +/- 0.15 D) [9].
  • PURPOSE: To investigate the accuracy of spatial localization in children with a specific type of convergent strabismus, fully accommodative esotropia [10].
  • The effects were similar in the case of pupil diameter, esophoria and prolactin [11].
  • Conclusion: Prism adaptation significantly improves the 1-year motor outcome after esotropia surgery in prism responders [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of Esotropia


Biological context of Esotropia


Anatomical context of Esotropia

  • METHODS: Patients with idiopathic acquired (nonaccommodative) esotropia and/or hypotropia were questioned in detail about possible contributing factors (trauma; family history of strabismus; thyroid, neurologic, or rheumatologic disorders) [23].
  • Brain stem necrosis resulting from a vascular deficiency has been offered as a possible pathogenetic explanation.(2) The strabismus in Möbius syndrome is congenital esotropia with bilateral limitation in abduction [24].

Gene context of Esotropia


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Esotropia


  1. Infantile X-linked ataxia and deafness: a new clinicopathologic entity? Schmidley, J.W., Levinsohn, M.W., Manetto, V. Neurology (1987) [Pubmed]
  2. Natural strabismus in monkeys. Convergence errors assessed by cover test and photographic methods. Quick, M.W., Eggers, H.M., Boothe, R.G. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Treatment of acute comitant esotropia in Chiari I malformation. Weeks, C.L., Hamed, L.M. Ophthalmology (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Ocular motility problems after orbital decompression for dysthyroid ophthalmopathy. Shorr, N., Neuhaus, R.W., Baylis, H.I. Ophthalmology (1982) [Pubmed]
  5. Congenital esotropia in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Mohney, B.G., Erie, J.C., Hodge, D.O., Jacobsen, S.J. Ophthalmology (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Strabismus surgery and its effect upon infant development in congenital esotropia. Rogers, G.L., Chazan, S., Fellows, R., Tsou, B.H. Ophthalmology (1982) [Pubmed]
  7. Can ophthalmologists repair the brain in infantile esotropia? Early surgery, stereopsis, monofixation syndrome, and the legacy of Marshall Parks. Tychsen, L. Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus / American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Prenatal diagnosis of 45,X/46,XX mosaicism and 45,X: implications for postnatal outcome. Koeberl, D.D., McGillivray, B., Sybert, V.P. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Accommodation and related risk factors associated with myopia progression and their interaction with treatment in COMET children. Gwiazda, J.E., Hyman, L., Norton, T.T., Hussein, M.E., Marsh-Tootle, W., Manny, R., Wang, Y., Everett, D. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Spatial localization in esotropia: does extraretinal eye position information change? Weir, C.R., Cleary, M., Parks, S., Dutton, G.N. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Repeated doses administration of MDMA in humans: pharmacological effects and pharmacokinetics. Farré, M., de la Torre, R., Mathúna, B.O., Roset, P.N., Peiró, A.M., Torrens, M., Ortuño, J., Pujadas, M., Camí, J. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. The one-year surgical outcome after prism adaptation for the management of acquired esotropia. Repka, M.X., Connett, J.E., Scott, W.E. Ophthalmology (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Distribution of visual callosal neurons in normal and strabismic cats. Bourdet, C., Olavarria, J.F., Van Sluyters, R.C. J. Comp. Neurol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Pseudotumor cerebri associated with cyclosporine use. Cruz, O.A., Fogg, S.G., Roper-Hall, G. Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Ocular myasthenia gravis mimicking pseudointernuclear ophthalmoplegia and variable esotropia. Acers, T.E. Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  16. Comparison of atropine and tropicamide in esotropia. Hiatt, R.L., Jerkins, G. Annals of ophthalmology. (1983) [Pubmed]
  17. Postoperative miotics for patients with infantile esotropia. Spierer, A., Zeeli, T. Ophthalmic surgery and lasers. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. The heritability of strabismus. Paul, T.O., Hardage, L.K. Ophthalmic Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Early versus delayed repair of infantile strabismus in macaque monkeys: I. ocular motor effects. Wong, A.M., Foeller, P., Bradley, D., Burkhalter, A., Tychsen, L. Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus / American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Divergence insufficiency. Thomas, A.H. Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus / American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Are Duane syndrome and infantile esotropia allelic? Connell, B.J., Wilkinson, R.M., Barbour, J.M., Scotter, L.W., Poulsen, J.L., Wirth, M.G., Essex, R.W., Savarirayan, R., Mackey, D.A. Ophthalmic Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Congenital seesaw nystagmus. Zelt, R.P., Biglan, A.W. Journal of pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus. (1985) [Pubmed]
  23. Presumed sinus-related strabismus. Ludwig, I.H., Smith, J.F. Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Strabismus surgery in children with Möbius syndrome. Spierer, A., Barak, A. Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus / American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Investigation of albinism genes in congenital esotropia. Burdon, K.P., Wilkinson, R.M., Barbour, J.M., Dickinson, J.L., Stankovich, J.M., Mackey, D.A., Sale, M.M. Mol. Vis. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Surgical results in nystagmus blockage syndrome. von Noorden, G.K., Wong, S.Y. Ophthalmology (1986) [Pubmed]
  27. Management of strabismus in nanophthalmic patients: a long-term follow-up report. Sener, E.C., Mocan, M.C., Saraç, O.I., Gedik, S., Sanaç, A.S. Ophthalmology (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. Fusion after surgical alignment of longstanding strabismus in adults. Morris, R.J., Scott, W.E., Dickey, C.F. Ophthalmology (1993) [Pubmed]
  29. Congenital esotropia. Nelson, L.B., Wagner, R.S., Simon, J.W., Harley, R.D. Survey of ophthalmology. (1987) [Pubmed]
  30. Baseline characteristics in the Myopia Progression Study, a clinical trial of bifocals to slow myopia progression. Fulk, G.W., Cyert, L.A., Parker, D.E. Optometry and vision science : official publication of the American Academy of Optometry. (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. Cycloplegic refraction after echothiophate iodide. Raab, E.L. Journal of pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus. (1983) [Pubmed]
  32. Clinical characteristics and long-term postoperative results of infantile esotropia and myopia. Shauly, Y., Miller, B., Meyer, E. Journal of pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus. (1997) [Pubmed]
  33. Pseudomyopia in a patient with blocked ventriculo-peritoneal shunt--a case report. Voon, L.W., Goh, K.Y., Lim, T.H., Tan, K.K., Yong, V.S. Ann. Acad. Med. Singap. (1997) [Pubmed]
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