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MeSH Review

Seat Belts

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Disease relevance of Seat Belts


Psychiatry related information on Seat Belts


High impact information on Seat Belts


Biological context of Seat Belts

  • The resulting nascent peptide does not contain the seat belt region (amino acid residues 88-105), a TSH-beta subunit region crucial for the dimerization with the alpha-subunit, and, hence, the correct secretion of the mature TSH heterodimer is hampered [10].
  • Significant improvements were seen in body fat, cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, seat belt use, and overall physical health among the high risk group and the low risk group [11].

Associations of Seat Belts with chemical compounds

  • The cys 26-110 bond is associated with the "seat-belt" region and cys 34-88 is a bond in the cystine knot [12].
  • Non-use of seat belts was also higher among those who felt that their station in life as measured by the Cantril ladder was unsatisfactory, who felt powerless to change at least some aspects of their lives, and who were infrequent church attenders [13].
  • Failure to wear seat belts was associated with a higher use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, and cocaine; more tolerance toward speeding and drinking while driving; less exercise; and more preference for fat in the diet [14].
  • A sample of 125 U.S. college students reported how frequently they exercised vigorously; wore seat belts in automobiles; and avoided consumption of red meat and foods high in dietary cholesterol, saturated fat, and salt [15].
  • Washington enacted a primary enforcement seat belt, the Chief of the Washington State Patrol made safety belt enforcement one of the core missions of that agency, and Washington participated in the national Memorial Day Click It or Ticket program during May 2002 and continued the program into 2003 [16].

Gene context of Seat Belts

  • Replacing the entire seat-belt of hTSHbeta with the hCG sequence conferred full hCG receptor binding and activation to the hTSH chimera, whereas TSH receptor binding and activation were abolished [17].
  • Conversely, introduction of the hTSHbeta seat-belt sequence into hCGbeta generated an hCG chimera that bound to and activated the TSH receptor but not the CG/lutropin (LH) receptor [17].
  • Thus, exchanging the seat-belt region between hTSH and hCG switches hormonal specificity in a mutually exclusive fashion [17].
  • At T3, there was still a difference in attitudes toward speeding but not toward seat belt use [18].
  • OBJECTIVES: This study investigated seat belt use among White, Black, and Hispanic drivers, in cities in which standard enforcement of the belt use law is permitted (primary enforcement) and in cities in which a motorist has to be first cited for another offense (secondary enforcement) [19].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Seat Belts

  • Increases have been consistent since 2000, when the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, in partnership with the Air Bag & Seat Belt Safety Campaign, increased its encouragement of states to implement highly visible enforcement programs [20].
  • As compared with seat belts, CRS are very highly effective in preventing serious injuries and hospitalization, respectively [21].
  • Mothers who entered the hospital with safety seats were more likely than those without safety seats to (1) be White or Mexican-American than Black; (2) not be dependent on public transportation; (3) have an older child who always rides in a car seat; and (4) wear seat belts themselves [22].


  1. Restrained occupants on the nonstruck side in lateral collisions. Mackay, G.M., Hill, J., Parkin, S., Munns, J.A. Accident; analysis and prevention. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Bilateral iliac vein thrombosis after seat belt-related trauma revealing hypoplasia of the inferior vena cava--a case report. Granel, B., Serratrice, J., Bartoli, J.M., Disdier, P., Piquet, P., Weiller, P.J. Angiology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Do tailored behavior change messages enhance the effectiveness of health risk appraisal? Results from a randomized trial. Kreuter, M.W., Strecher, V.J. Health education research. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Do poor health behaviors affect health-related quality of life and healthcare utilization among veterans? The Veterans Health Study. Borzecki, A.M., Lee, A., Kalman, D., Kazis, L.E. The Journal of ambulatory care management. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Medicopolitical peace? -- Challenge to Clinical Autonomy -- Compulsory seat belts. Lister, J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  6. Crystal structure of human chorionic gonadotropin. Lapthorn, A.J., Harris, D.C., Littlejohn, A., Lustbader, J.W., Canfield, R.E., Machin, K.J., Morgan, F.J., Isaacs, N.W. Nature (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. Failure to use seat belts in the United States. The 1981-1983 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveys. Goldbaum, G.M., Remington, P.L., Powell, K.E., Hogelin, G.C., Gentry, E.M. JAMA (1986) [Pubmed]
  8. A circulating, biologically inactive thyrotropin caused by a mutation in the beta subunit gene. Medeiros-Neto, G., Herodotou, D.T., Rajan, S., Kommareddi, S., de Lacerda, L., Sandrini, R., Boguszewski, M.C., Hollenberg, A.N., Radovick, S., Wondisford, F.E. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Seat belts and rheumatoid arthritis. Higgens, C.S., Erhardt, C.C. Lancet (1983) [Pubmed]
  10. New autosomal recessive mutation of the TSH-beta subunit gene causing central isolated hypothyroidism. Vuissoz, J.M., Deladoëy, J., Buyukgebiz, A., Cemeroglu, P., Gex, G., Gallati, S., Mullis, P.E. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. The impact of an incentive-based worksite health promotion program on modifiable health risk factors. Poole, K., Kumpfer, K., Pett, M. American journal of health promotion : AJHP. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Disulfide bond mutations in follicle-stimulating hormone result in uncoupling of biological activity from intracellular behavior. Hiro'oka, T., Maassen, D., Berger, P., Boime, I. Endocrinology (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. What kinds of people do not use seat belts? Helsing, K.J., Comstock, G.W. American journal of public health. (1977) [Pubmed]
  14. Correlates of seat-belt use by adolescents: implications for health promotion. Maron, D.J., Telch, M.J., Killen, J.D., Vranizan, K.M., Saylor, K.E., Robinson, T.N. Preventive medicine. (1986) [Pubmed]
  15. Covert self-reinforcers, fear of consequences, and health behavior. Birkimer, J.C., Bledsoe, L.K. The Journal of social psychology. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Ninety five percent: an evaluation of law, policy, and programs to promote seat belt use in Washington state. Salzberg, P.M., Moffat, J.M. Journal of safety research. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Substitution of the seat-belt region of the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) beta-subunit with the corresponding regions of choriogonadotropin or follitropin confers luteotropic but not follitropic activity to chimeric TSH. Grossmann, M., Szkudlinski, M.W., Wong, R., Dias, J.A., Ji, T.H., Weintraub, B.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Effect of integration of injury control information into a high school physics course. Martinez, R., Levine, D.W., Martin, R., Altman, D.G. Annals of emergency medicine. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Seat belt use among African Americans, Hispanics, and Whites. Wells, J.K., Williams, A.F., Farmer, C.M. Accident; analysis and prevention. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Recent estimates of safety belt use. Glassbrenner, D., Carra, J.S., Nichols, J. Journal of safety research. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. An evaluation of the effectiveness of forward facing child restraint systems. Arbogast, K.B., Durbin, D.R., Cornejo, R.A., Kallan, M.J., Winston, F.K. Accident; analysis and prevention. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. A hospital-based infant safety seat program for low-income families: assessment of population needs and provider practices. Brink, S.G., Simons-Morton, B.G., Zane, D. Health education quarterly. (1989) [Pubmed]
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