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CRS  -  craniosynostosis

Homo sapiens

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Disease relevance of CRS


Psychiatry related information on CRS

  • The relationship between coping behavior and adjustment to illness was not sensitive to the different ways of scoring the CRS [5].
  • The following oral fluid opiate cutoffs were evaluated: the GC/MS limit of quantification (LOQ) of 2.5 mg/l; 15 microg/l currently used for oral fluid testing in the United Kingdom (UK); 30 microg/l (Opiate CRS cutoff); and 40 microg/l, the proposed Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) cutoff [6].
  • The results of the analysis of the measurement model, taken as a whole, demonstrate that the CRS II has adequate psychometric properties [7].
  • This indicates that label design can decrease task performance; the actual physical design of a CRS may be just as critical as label content in the installation choices provided to the user [8].
  • These data definitively implicate perturbation of TGFbeta signaling in many common human phenotypes, including craniosynostosis, cleft palate, arterial aneurysms, congenital heart disease and mental retardation, and suggest that comprehensive mechanistic insight will require consideration of both primary and compensatory events [9].

High impact information on CRS

  • Our findings contrast with the only described MSX2 homeodomain mutation (P148H), associated with craniosynostosis, that binds with enhanced affinity to the same target [10].
  • Saethre-Chotzen syndrome is one of the most common autosomal dominant disorders of craniosynostosis in humans and is characterized by craniofacial and limb anomalies [11].
  • Studies in Drosophila indicate that twist may affect the transcription of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs), another gene family implicated in human craniosynostosis [11].
  • Saethre-Chotzen syndrome (acrocephalo-syndactyly type III, ACS III) is an autosomal dominant craniosynostosis with brachydactyly, soft tissue syndactyly and facial dysmorphism including ptosis, facial asymmetry and prominent ear crura [12].
  • Beare-Stevenson cutis gyrata syndrome (MIM 123790) is an autosomal dominant condition characterized by the furrowed skin disorder of cutis gyrata, acanthosis nigricans, craniosynostosis, craniofacial dysmorphism, digital anomalies, umbilical and anogenital abnormalities and early death [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of CRS


Biological context of CRS

  • In direct gel shift DNA-binding assays, a bacterial GST/IE2(346-579) fusion protein bound to a 30-mer oligonucleotide probe encompassing the major immediate-early gene negative cis-regulatory target DNA sequence but failed to bind to a single-base-pair insertion mutant probe (delta CRS) [19].
  • A subset of the mRNA species which encode the structural and some accessory genes contains inhibitory sequences (INS or CRS elements) which prevent nuclear export of the RNA or its utilization in the cytoplasm [20].
  • IE2 also negatively autoregulates its own expression by binding to a strategically positioned IE2 binding site, called CRS, located immediately downstream of the TATA box of the HCMV major IE promoter [21].
  • Increasing tidal volumes to 22 mL/kg increased the recorded Ppeak (26.3 +/- 4.1 vs 37.9 +/- 3.2 cm H2O, P < 0.008), Pplateau (21.5 +/- 3.6 vs 27.7 +/- 4.3 cm H2O, P < 0.01), and CRS (39.8 +/- 7.7 vs 48.5 +/- 8.3 mL/cm H2O) significantly without improving arterial oxygen tension and resulted in severe hypocapnia [22].
  • Positive predictive values of both tests for blood pressure cure or improvement after PTRA were 86% for CRS and 85% for DDS [23].

Anatomical context of CRS

  • Further investigation revealed the presence of a truncated pRb in the CRS-A2 cell line, due to a nucleotide insertion in the coding sequence at position 2550 [1].
  • At 48 h, lymphocytes were more numerous than macrophages in both groups, CD8 lymphocytes were more abundant in CRS reactions, but CD4 and CD25 (activated) T-lymphocytes and macrophages had a similar density in both groups [24].
  • These results indicate that the major HIV-1 splice donors can function as CRS and function to negatively regulate the cytoplasmic accumulation of HIV-1 RNAs in COS cells [25].
  • METHOD: Lower-extremity kinematics using three-dimensional motion analysis and ground reaction forces (GRF) using a force plate were assessed in 16 older-aged (55-65 yr) and 13 younger-aged (20-35 yr) well-trained male distance runners running at a self-selected (SRS) and a controlled (CRS) speed of 3.3 m.s-1 [26].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that notochord splitting in the cervical region might be involved in the pathogenesis of CRS [27].

Associations of CRS with chemical compounds

  • In contrast, patients who received 72 h of PCV had lower CRS, PaO2, CI, DO2, and Q VA/Q T values (p < 0.05) and required higher doses of sufentanil (p < 0.05), midazolam (p < 0.05), noradrenalin (p < 0.05), and dobutamine (p < 0.05) [28].
  • We present a 3-year-old boy with CRS involving the sagittal and coronal sutures, who had a de novo and apparently balanced translocation, t(6;7)(q16.2;p15.3) [29].
  • Therefore, in this study, the solubility and rate of dissolution of three apatite sources, BoneSource, Norian cranial repair system (CRS), and a sintered hydroxyapatite (Calcitite) are evaluated in a thermodynamically closed system [30].
  • The measured solubility under physiological conditions (tris buffer solution, pH 7.4, 37 degrees C) of BoneSource, Norian CRS and Calcitite is 7.5, 7.4 and 1.4 ppm, respectively [30].
  • Respiratory system compliance (CRS) was higher in caffeine-treated compared to non-caffeine-treated animals at 18 and 24 h age [median (range) 18 h: 0.60 (0.29-1.58) ml/cm H2O/kg to 0.39 (0.33-0.46) ml/cm H2O/kg; and 24 h: 0.68 (0.36-1.20) ml/cm H2O/kg to 0.36 (0.33-0.55) ml/cm H2O/kg; p < 0.05] [31].

Regulatory relationships of CRS


Other interactions of CRS

  • Commonly used dating models (CIC-CSR, CRS) were applied to Torch Lake, but assumptions of these methods are violated, rendering sediment geochronologies inaccurate [34].
  • In vivo competition studies show that titratable trans-acting factors, shared by Class I and Class II promoters, mediate the CRS-dependent IFN-gamma response [35].
  • RESULTS: The frequency of the ADD1 W460 allele was determined for the subclinical cases (0.12), MRI-CRS (0.16), clinical cases (0.14), and CRS (0.17) [36].
  • The amino acid sequence of human cytoplasmic cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase (CRS) was examined by analyzing sequences of genomic and expressed sequence tag fragments [37].
  • Increased P ABD, whether applied externally or by intraperitoneal insufflation, did not alter the CRS stat (ANOVA p = 0.557), nor systematically change the pH, PaCO(2) or PaO(2) (ANOVA p = 0.541, p = 0.545, p = 0.446, respectively) [38].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CRS

  • METHODS: Thirty patients with cancer pain were randomized in a double-blind crossover study to MS-CRS every 12 hours or SC morphine every 4 hours for 4 days each, using a 2.5:1 analgesic equivalence ratio [39].
  • CONCLUSION: MS-CRS, administered every 12 hours, provides analgesia comparable to SC morphine and represents a reliable, noninvasive alternative method of pain control for patients unable to take oral morphine [39].
  • The protocol is based on the magnetic bead method of solid phase reversible immobilization that has been automated by using a CRS-based robotic system [40].
  • Five patients with strongly positive reactions at 48 h showed slower blood flow at the centre of the reaction than at the periphery (central relative slowing, CRS), possibly indicating central ischaemia short of necrosis: no fibrin deposits were seen in the dermal vessels of these skin test sites [24].
  • Previous studies have indicated that a chemomechanical caries removal system (CRS) has been effective in minimizing the use of conventional mechanical instruments and that it may reduce the need for local anesthesia [41].


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