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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Embryo Loss

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Disease relevance of Embryo Loss

  • This pattern can be interpreted as resulting from two bacterial effects: One (usually termed mod, for modification) would affect sperm and induce embryo death, unless Wolbachia is also present in the egg, which implies the existence of a second effect, usually termed resc, for rescue [1].
  • High rates of egg infertility and embryo death in a colony of South Polar Skuas breeding in the Antarctic were similar to those in polluted North Atlantic populations of the Great Skua [2].

High impact information on Embryo Loss


Chemical compound and disease context of Embryo Loss

  • Embryo loss was associated (p = 0.01) with increased serum concentrations of progesterone in recipients at the time of transfer [8].
  • Phosphoramide mustard alone, at concentrations of 10 and 25 microM, did not produce embryo deaths but did cause malformations and growth retardation in 100% of the exposed embryos [9].
  • Day 10 rat embryos were cultured in the presence of acrolein and glutathione, either concurrently or sequentially, and evaluated for embryo deaths, malformations, growth retardation, and content of glutathione and protein [10].
  • The addition of 10 microM buthionine sulfoximine resulted in 100% embryolethality at 100 microM acrolein; this buthionine sulfoximine concentration decreased the EC50 values for embryo deaths and malformations to 50% of those for acrolein alone [9].
  • 4-Hydroperoxycyclophosphamide produced embryo deaths and malformations and decreases in embryonic growth and protein content at concentrations in the range of 5 to 25 microM [11].

Biological context of Embryo Loss


Anatomical context of Embryo Loss


Gene context of Embryo Loss

  • This is to our knowledge the first study correlating the increase in post-implantation embryo loss obtained after paternal drug treatment with the decrease in the expression of Igf2 in these embryos [20].
  • This suggests that SAPKgamma/JNK1 and SAPKalpha/JNK2 may be important mediators of stress-induced responses in early implanting conceptuses that could mediate embryo loss [21].
  • On the other hand, far fewer of the CBA/J x Balb/c conceptuses (5-10% embryo loss) displayed significant cellular infiltration and nitric oxide and TNF alpha [22].
  • INTERVENTION(S): The administration of polyIC was performed to establish a murine model of induced embryo resorption, with or without TLR3 blocking by multiple injection of mAb against this receptor [23].
  • The results obtained confirmed the embryotoxic character of NO found in these particular sera leading to the hypothesis that NO plays a potential role in early embryo death [24].


  1. Incipient evolution of Wolbachia compatibility types. Charlat, S., Riegler, M., Baures, I., Poinsot, D., Stauffer, C., Merçot, H. Evolution (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in the tissues of South Polar Skuas (Catharacta maccormicki) and Adélie Penguins (Pygoscelis adeliea) from Ross Sea, Antarctica. Court, G.S., Davis, L.S., Focardi, S., Bargargli, R., Fossi, C., Leonzio, C., Marili, L. Environ. Pollut. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Early embryo loss is associated with local production of nitric oxide by decidual mononuclear cells. Haddad, E.K., Duclos, A.J., Baines, M.G. J. Exp. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Epigenetic programming in the preimplantation rat embryo is disrupted by chronic paternal cyclophosphamide exposure. Barton, T.S., Robaire, B., Hales, B.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Targeted disruption of mouse centromere protein C gene leads to mitotic disarray and early embryo death. Kalitsis, P., Fowler, K.J., Earle, E., Hill, J., Choo, K.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Early embryo loss is associated with the prior expression of macrophage activation markers in the decidua. Haddad, E.K., Duclos, A.J., Lapp, W.S., Baines, M.G. J. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Protamine 2 deficiency leads to sperm DNA damage and embryo death in mice. Cho, C., Jung-Ha, H., Willis, W.D., Goulding, E.H., Stein, P., Xu, Z., Schultz, R.M., Hecht, N.B., Eddy, E.M. Biol. Reprod. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Transfer of bovine embryos produced in vivo or in vitro: survival and fetal development. Farin, P.W., Farin, C.E. Biol. Reprod. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Enhancement of the embryotoxicity of acrolein, but not phosphoramide mustard, by glutathione depletion in rat embryos in vitro. Slott, V.L., Hales, B.F. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  10. Protection of rat embryos in culture against the embryotoxicity of acrolein using exogenous glutathione. Slott, V.L., Hales, B.F. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  11. Role of the 4-hydroxy intermediate in the in vitro embryotoxicity of cyclophosphamide and dechlorocyclophosphamide. Slott, V.L., Hales, B.F. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. Lymphocyte phenotyping and NK cell activity analysis in pregnant NOD/SCID mice. Lin, Y., Chen, Y., Zeng, Y., Wang, T., Zeng, S. J. Reprod. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Relationship between peripheral estrogen concentrations at insemination and subsequent fetal loss in cattle. Shore, L.S., Rios, C., Marcus, S., Bernstein, M., Shemesh, M. Theriogenology (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Associations between milk progesterone concentration on different days and with embryo survival during the early luteal phase in dairy cows. McNeill, R.E., Diskin, M.G., Sreenan, J.M., Morris, D.G. Theriogenology (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Female germ cell aneuploidy and embryo death in mice lacking the meiosis-specific protein SCP3. Yuan, L., Liu, J.G., Hoja, M.R., Wilbertz, J., Nordqvist, K., Höög, C. Science (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Role of interferon-gamma in the priming of decidual macrophages for nitric oxide production and early pregnancy loss. Haddad, E.K., Duclos, A.J., Antecka, E., Lapp, W.S., Baines, M.G. Cell. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Chick "crooked-toe" syndrome induced by polar lipid in synovial fluids from some rheumatoid arthritis patients. Diener, T.O., Smith, D.R. J. Rheumatol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  18. Embryo resorption following administration of steroidal compounds to rats in mid pregnancy. Sarkar, K., Kinson, G.A., Rowsell, H.C. Can. J. Vet. Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  19. Anti-abortive effect of Radix scutellariae and Rhizoma atractylodis in mice. Zhong, X.H., Zhou, Z.X., Li, T.S., Wang, E.Q., Shi, W.Y., Chu, S.M. Am. J. Chin. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Effect of paternal tamoxifen on the expression of insulin-like growth factor 2 and insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor in the post-implantation rat embryos. Kedia, N., Gill-Sharma, M.K., Parte, P., Juneja, H.S., Balasinor, N. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. SAPKgamma/JNK1 and SAPKalpha/JNK2 mRNA transcripts are expressed in early gestation human placenta and mouse eggs, preimplantation embryos, and trophoblast stem cells. Zhong, W., Sun, T., Wang, Q.T., Wang, Y., Xie, Y., Johnson, A., Leach, R., Puscheck, E.E., Rappolee, D.A. Fertil. Steril. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Embryo infiltration by maternal macrophages is associated with selective expression of proto-oncogenes in a murine model of spontaneous abortion. Duclos, A.J., Haddad, E.K., Chalifour, L.E., Baines, M.G. Biol. Reprod. (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Potential role of toll-like receptor 3 in a murine model of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid-induced embryo resorption. Lin, Y., Zeng, Y., Zeng, S., Wang, T. Fertil. Steril. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Nitric oxide production by pre-implantation embryos in response to embryotoxic factors. Athanassakis, I., Aifantis, I., Baritakis, S., Farmakiotis, V., Koumantakis, E., Vassiliadis, S. Cell. Physiol. Biochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
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