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MeSH Review

Maternal Age

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Disease relevance of Maternal Age


Psychiatry related information on Maternal Age


High impact information on Maternal Age

  • Their results implicate an age-dependent loss of function in SMC1beta (or related proteins) in the maternal age effect of humans [7].
  • METHODS: 255 children from cryopreserved embryos were matched by maternal age, parity, single or twin pregnancy, and date of delivery with 255 children born after IVF with fresh embryos, and 252 children from spontaneous pregnancies [8].
  • UK multicentre project on assessment of risk of trisomy 21 by maternal age and fetal nuchal-translucency thickness at 10-14 weeks of gestation. Fetal Medicine Foundation First Trimester Screening Group [9].
  • Maternal age, somatic mosaicism, and Alzheimer disease [10].
  • Although women with SLE, RA, and pregestational DM were significantly older than women in the general obstetric population, disparities in the risk of adverse outcomes of pregnancy remained statistically significant after adjustment for maternal age [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Maternal Age


Biological context of Maternal Age

  • Variables used for analysis were eight antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and total daily dosages (drug score), and seven background factors consisting of maternal age at delivery, gravida, outcome of previous pregnancy, etiology and type of epilepsy, occurrence of seizures in the first trimester of pregnancy, and seizure frequency during pregnancy [17].
  • The genetic risk of fetal autosomal trisomies for women less than age 35 offered amniocentesis with maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein values less than 0.5 multiples of the median is in the same range as that currently accepted for advanced maternal age [18].
  • The screening test was considered positive if either maternal serum concentrations of alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP), hCG, and unconjugated estriol (E3) fell below defined levels, or the second-trimester patient-specific risk (based on maternal age and serum analytes) was greater than 1:100 [19].
  • Taken together with the suggestion of a maternal age effect in our series these data suggest that follicular stimulation regimes which precede IVF do not necessarily add to the naturally high aneuploidy rate of the human species [20].
  • Logistic regression analysis showed that maternal age, race, gravidity, White class, duration of diabetes, maternal vasculopathy, and cigarette smoking were not significant variables correlated with minor congenital malformations [21].

Anatomical context of Maternal Age


Associations of Maternal Age with chemical compounds

  • There was a progressive increase in screening serum glucose levels and a significantly higher incidence of diabetes with increasing maternal age [27].
  • Although the mean estradiol level per preovulatory follicle showed a slight decrease with maternal age, no statistically significant trend was noted [28].
  • The 2-h, 75-g glucose load values were significantly associated in both periods with neonatal CC/TC ratio </=10th percentile and ponderal index >/=90th percentile, whereas maternal age >35 years was an independent predictor of both neonatal CC/TC ratio </=10th percentile and macrosomia [29].
  • Using a multivariate risk analysis of maternal age and concentrations of alpha-fetoprotein, unconjugated estriol, and hCG in maternal serum, I determined that, at a risk cutoff value of 1 in 300, 52% of Down's cases could be detected with total hCG in the calculation, compared with 66% with the free beta-hCG concentration [30].
  • These results are adjusted for region, interview year, periconceptional folic acid supplementation, maternal age, weight, education, and infections early in pregnancy [31].

Gene context of Maternal Age

  • To evaluate the role of the FMR1 repeat in POF, repeat sizes were examined in 53 women with idiopathic POF, 161 control women from the general population, and 21 women with proven fertility at an advanced maternal age [32].
  • Risk of type 1 diabetes in childhood and maternal age at delivery, interaction with ACP1 and sex [33].
  • One of the most significant findings in this study is that maternal age influences the survival of Axd embryos in utero [34].
  • Erythropoietin levels were influenced by parity but not maternal age [35].
  • Advanced maternal age resulted in a high exencephaly rate in Sp/Sp female embryos (but not other genotypes) and a high overall resorption rate [36].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Maternal Age

  • Given the markedly lower frequency of autoantibodies in offspring of mothers, larger sample sizes will be required to determine whether islet autoantibodies are influenced by age of IDDM onset of mothers, maternal age of pregnancy, and presence of diabetes in these mothers prior to conception [37].
  • RESULTS: Univariate analysis revealed that there were no significant differences between the study and control groups with respect to maternal age, parity, or betamethasone exposure [38].
  • RESULTS: The mean (+/- standard deviation) maternal age (31.6 +/- 5.9 versus 30.5 +/- 6.3 years), body mass index (28.8 +/- 5.1 versus 28.8 +/- 4.5 kg/m2), and parity (3.0 +/- 1.6 versus 2.8 + 1.7) were not different between the lactating and nonlactating groups, respectively [39].
  • Total estrogens (TE), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), and human placental lactogen (hPL) were determined by radioimmunoassay in the blood of 126 pregnant women during their 26th and 31st weeks of pregnancy and the results were studied in relation to maternal age and parity [40].
  • BACKGROUND: The percentage of children born after IVF will continue to increase due to demographic changes such as increasing maternal age and new developments in assisted reproduction techniques [41].


  1. Detection of at-risk pregnancy by means of highly sensitive assays for thyroid autoantibodies. Stagnaro-Green, A., Roman, S.H., Cobin, R.H., el-Harazy, E., Alvarez-Marfany, M., Davies, T.F. JAMA (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Collaborative study of Down syndrome screening using maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein and maternal age. Palomaki, G.E. Lancet (1986) [Pubmed]
  3. Mode of delivery and risk of allergic rhinitis and asthma. Bager, P., Melbye, M., Rostgaard, K., Benn, C.S., Westergaard, T. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Sonographic evaluation of fetal growth and body composition in women with different degrees of normal glucose metabolism. Parretti, E., Carignani, L., Cioni, R., Bartoli, E., Borri, P., La Torre, P., Mecacci, F., Martini, E., Scarselli, G., Mello, G. Diabetes Care (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Trends in asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema among Swedish conscripts from farming and non-farming environments. A nationwide study over three decades. Bråbäck, L., Hjern, A., Rasmussen, F. Clin. Exp. Allergy (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Maternal age as a factor in determining the reproductive and behavioral outcome of rats prenatally exposed to ethanol. Vorhees, C.V. Neurotoxicology and teratology. (1988) [Pubmed]
  7. Cohesin and the maternal age effect. Gilliland, W.D., Hawley, R.S. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Postnatal growth and health in children born after cryopreservation as embryos. Wennerholm, U.B., Albertsson-Wikland, K., Bergh, C., Hamberger, L., Niklasson, A., Nilsson, L., Thiringer, K., Wennergren, M., Wikland, M., Borres, M.P. Lancet (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. UK multicentre project on assessment of risk of trisomy 21 by maternal age and fetal nuchal-translucency thickness at 10-14 weeks of gestation. Fetal Medicine Foundation First Trimester Screening Group. Snijders, R.J., Noble, P., Sebire, N., Souka, A., Nicolaides, K.H. Lancet (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Maternal age, somatic mosaicism, and Alzheimer disease. Howells, R. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Obstetric hospitalizations in the United States for women with systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. Chakravarty, E.F., Nelson, L., Krishnan, E. Arthritis Rheum. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Chronic peripheral separation of placenta. The significance of diffuse chorioamnionic hemosiderosis. Redline, R.W., Wilson-Costello, D. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Maternal serum unconjugated oestriol as an antenatal screening test for Down's syndrome. Wald, N.J., Cuckle, H.S., Densem, J.W., Nanchahal, K., Canick, J.A., Haddow, J.E., Knight, G.J., Palomaki, G.E. British journal of obstetrics and gynaecology. (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. Maternal serum markers in screening for Down syndrome. Nørgaard-Pedersen, B., Larsen, S.O., Arends, J., Svenstrup, B., Tabor, A. Clin. Genet. (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Effects of intracervical prostaglandin E2 on fetal heart rate and uterine activity patterns in the presence of oligohydramnios. Larson, J.D., Rayburn, W.F., Turnbull, G.L., Schwartz, W.J., Stanley, J.R., Christensen, H.D. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. The interval between a single course of antenatal steroids and delivery and its association with neonatal outcomes. Peaceman, A.M., Bajaj, K., Kumar, P., Grobman, W.A. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Teratogenicity of antiepileptic drugs: analysis of possible risk factors. Kaneko, S., Otani, K., Fukushima, Y., Ogawa, Y., Nomura, Y., Ono, T., Nakane, Y., Teranishi, T., Goto, M. Epilepsia (1988) [Pubmed]
  18. Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein and fetal autosomal trisomies. Doran, T.A., Cadesky, K., Wong, P.Y., Mastrogiacomo, C., Capello, T. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  19. Maternal serum screening for fetal trisomy 18: a comparison of fixed cutoff and patient-specific risk protocols. Benn, P.A., Leo, M.V., Rodis, J.F., Beazoglou, T., Collins, R., Horne, D. Obstetrics and gynecology. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Cytogenetic analysis of unfertilized oocytes retrieved after treatment with the LHRH analogue, buserelin. Delhanty, J.D., Penketh, R.J. Hum. Reprod. (1990) [Pubmed]
  21. Minor congenital malformations in infants of insulin-dependent diabetic women: association with poor glycemic control. Rosenn, B., Miodovnik, M., Dignan, P.S., Siddiqi, T.A., Khoury, J., Mimouni, F. Obstetrics and gynecology. (1990) [Pubmed]
  22. Polyploidy and failed fertilization in in-vitro fertilization are related to patient's age and gamete quality. Yie, S.M., Collins, J.A., Daya, S., Hughes, E., Sagle, M., Younglai, E.V. Hum. Reprod. (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein levels and the prenatal diagnosis of neural tube defects: a collaborative study of 2180 pregnancies in the Netherlands. Kleijer, W.J., De Bruijn, H.W., Leschot, N.J. British journal of obstetrics and gynaecology. (1978) [Pubmed]
  24. The impact of antenatal and perinatal variables on cord blood haemopoietic stem/progenitor cell yield available for transplantation. Shlebak, A.A., Roberts, I.A., Stevens, T.A., Syzdlo, R.M., Goldman, J.M., Gordon, M.Y. Br. J. Haematol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. The sensitivity of the trivariate analysis using maternal serum alpha-feto protein, human chorionic gonadotrophin and maternal age in screening for fetal aneuploidy in mothers above the age of 35. Anandakumar, C., Chew, S., Wong, Y.C., Goh, V.H., Tain, C.F., Ratnam, S.S. Journal of perinatal medicine. (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Biotin requirements of broiler breeders fed diets of different protein content and effect of insufficient biotin on the viability of progeny. Whitehead, C.C., Pearson, R.A., Herron, K.M. Br. Poult. Sci. (1985) [Pubmed]
  27. The relationship of maternal age on gestational diabetes. McFarland, K.F., Case, C.A. Diabetes Care (1985) [Pubmed]
  28. Effect of age on response to human menopausal gonadotropin stimulation. Jacobs, S.L., Metzger, D.A., Dodson, W.C., Haney, A.F. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1990) [Pubmed]
  29. The 75-gram glucose load in pregnancy: relation between glucose levels and anthropometric characteristics of infants born to women with normal glucose metabolism. Mello, G., Parretti, E., Cioni, R., Lucchetti, R., Carignani, L., Martini, E., Mecacci, F., Lagazio, C., Pratesi, M. Diabetes Care (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Evaluation of an assay of the free beta-subunit of choriogonadotropin and its potential value in screening for Down's syndrome. Spencer, K. Clin. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  31. Neural tube defects in relation to use of folic acid antagonists during pregnancy. Hernández-Díaz, S., Werler, M.M., Walker, A.M., Mitchell, A.A. Am. J. Epidemiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. FMR1 repeat sizes in the gray zone and high end of the normal range are associated with premature ovarian failure. Bretherick, K.L., Fluker, M.R., Robinson, W.P. Hum. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. Risk of type 1 diabetes in childhood and maternal age at delivery, interaction with ACP1 and sex. Bottini, N., Meloni, G.F., Lucarelli, P., Amante, A., Saccucci, P., Gloria-Bottini, F., Bottini, E. Diabetes Metab. Res. Rev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. Expression of a new mutation (Axd) causing axial defects in mice correlates with maternal phenotype and age. Essien, F.B., Haviland, M.B., Naidoff, A.E. Teratology (1990) [Pubmed]
  35. Haemoglobin during pregnancy: relationship to erythropoietin and haematinic status. McMullin, M.F., White, R., Lappin, T., Reeves, J., MacKenzie, G. Eur. J. Haematol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  36. Effect of arsenite, maternal age, and embryonic sex on spina bifida, exencephaly, and resorption rates in the splotch mouse. Martin, L.J., Machado, A.F., Loza, M.A., Mao, G.E., Lee, G.S., Hovland, D.N., Cantor, R.M., Collins, M.D. Birth defects research. Part A, Clinical and molecular teratology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  37. Sexual dimorphism in transmission of expression of islet autoantibodies to offspring. Yu, L., Chase, H.P., Falorni, A., Rewers, M., Lernmark, A., Eisenbarth, G.S. Diabetologia (1995) [Pubmed]
  38. Indomethacin tocolysis and intraventricular hemorrhage. Suarez, R.D., Grobman, W.A., Parilla, B.V. Obstetrics and gynecology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  39. The effect of lactation on glucose and lipid metabolism in women with recent gestational diabetes. Kjos, S.L., Henry, O., Lee, R.M., Buchanan, T.A., Mishell, D.R. Obstetrics and gynecology. (1993) [Pubmed]
  40. Maternal age, parity, and pregnancy estrogens. Panagiotopoulou, K., Katsouyanni, K., Petridou, E., Garas, Y., Tzonou, A., Trichopoulos, D. Cancer Causes Control (1990) [Pubmed]
  41. Congenital malformations in 4224 children conceived after IVF. Anthony, S., Buitendijk, S.E., Dorrepaal, C.A., Lindner, K., Braat, D.D., den Ouden, A.L. Hum. Reprod. (2002) [Pubmed]
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