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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Activator Appliances

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Disease relevance of Activator Appliances


High impact information on Activator Appliances

  • Further, the readout of Shh activator function integrated over time and space does not display a stable and linear gradient along the A-P axis, as in a classical morphogen view [3].
  • These results show that clr4 plays a critical role in silencing at mating-type loci and centromeres through the organization of repressive chromatin structure and demonstrate a new, activator function for Clr4p [4].
  • Towards an understanding of the basis for activator function, including the multiplicity of TBP interactions, we have now identified mutations in yeast TBP that selectively block activator (GAL4-VP16)-dependent but not basal transcription [5].
  • We show that activators function during at least two stages of preinitiation complex assembly: first, to recruit the general transcription factor TFIIB, and then at a second step, after TFIIB entry [6].
  • These results reveal that selectivity in activator function in vivo can be achieved through differential use of TBP and TFIIB [7].

Biological context of Activator Appliances

  • We discuss the dominant phenotype of C1-I with respect to its possible repressor function in contrast to the activator function of the C1 gene product [8].
  • Taken together, we suggest that CTM alleviates repression by CE2, which allows HSF to be heat-inducibly phosphorylated and presume that phosphorylation is a prerequisite for the activator function of HSF when it binds to an atypical HSE [9].
  • Evidence for a direct role for NGG1p in regulating activator function is supported by the finding that NGG1p is also required for transcriptional activation by GAL4p-VPl6 and LexA-GCN4p (Pina, B., Berger, S. L., Marcus, G. A., Silverman, N., Agapite, J., and Guarente, L. (1993) Mol. Cell. Biol. 13, 5981-5989) [10].
  • We examined the interplay between DI, Gro and Dri on the hkb enhancer and show that when acting over a distance, Gro abolishes rather than converts DI activator function [11].
  • Deletion of and point mutations in this CTD-like motif abolish the transcriptional activator function of the proline-rich domain, while natural CTD repeats from RNA polymerase II are fully functional in place of the CTD-like motif [12].

Anatomical context of Activator Appliances


Associations of Activator Appliances with chemical compounds


Gene context of Activator Appliances

  • Thus, Uaf30p plays only a minor role in its activator function [19].
  • These data demonstrate that the products of the Pc-G genes can significantly repress activator function on transiently introduced DNA [20].
  • We propose a model in which the ADA/GCN5 and SWI/SNF complexes facilitate activator function by acting in concert to disrupt or modify chromatin structure [21].
  • These studies demonstrate that only the activator function of Gli2 is actually required, and indicates that in specific situations, Shh can modulate the ability of Gli1 to activate target genes [22].
  • Our data, therefore, suggest that TFIIH and TFIIA can mediate activator function in the absence of TAFIIs [23].


  1. Mutant lambda phage repressor with a specific defect in its positive control function. Guarente, L., Nye, J.S., Hochschild, A., Ptashne, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1982) [Pubmed]
  2. Isolation and molecular characterization of hepatitis B virus X-protein from a baculovirus expression system. Urban, S., Hildt, E., Eckerskorn, C., Sirma, H., Kekulé, A., Hofschneider, P.H. Hepatology (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Dynamic changes in the response of cells to positive hedgehog signaling during mouse limb patterning. Ahn, S., Joyner, A.L. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. The chromo and SET domains of the Clr4 protein are essential for silencing in fission yeast. Ivanova, A.V., Bonaduce, M.J., Ivanov, S.V., Klar, A.J. Nat. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Effects of activation-defective TBP mutations on transcription initiation in yeast. Kim, T.K., Hashimoto, S., Kelleher, R.J., Flanagan, P.M., Kornberg, R.D., Horikoshi, M., Roeder, R.G. Nature (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Eukaryotic activators function during multiple steps of preinitiation complex assembly. Choy, B., Green, M.R. Nature (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Selective use of TBP and TFIIB revealed by a TATA-TBP-TFIIB array with altered specificity. Tansey, W.P., Herr, W. Science (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Molecular analysis of the C1-I allele from Zea mays: a dominant mutant of the regulatory C1 locus. Paz-Ares, J., Ghosal, D., Saedler, H. EMBO J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Phosphorylation of the yeast heat shock transcription factor is implicated in gene-specific activation dependent on the architecture of the heat shock element. Hashikawa, N., Sakurai, H. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Structure/functional properties of the yeast dual regulator protein NGG1 that are required for glucose repression. Brandl, C.J., Martens, J.A., Margaliot, A., Stenning, D., Furlanetto, A.M., Saleh, A., Hamilton, K.S., Genereaux, J. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Receptor tyrosine kinase signaling regulates different modes of Groucho-dependent control of Dorsal. Häder, T., Wainwright, D., Shandala, T., Saint, R., Taubert, H., Brönner, G., Jäckle, H. Curr. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. The upstream activator CTF/NF1 and RNA polymerase II share a common element involved in transcriptional activation. Xiao, H., Lis, J.T., Xiao, H., Greenblatt, J., Friesen, J.D. Nucleic Acids Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Rho GTPases in growth cone guidance. Dickson, B.J. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. A Gal4-sigma 54 hybrid protein that functions as a potent activator of RNA polymerase II transcription in yeast. Chen, B.S., Sun, Z.W., Hampsey, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. A nonantigenic covalent streptokinase-polyethylene glycol complex with plasminogen activator function. Rajagopalan, S., Gonias, S.L., Pizzo, S.V. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  16. Modulation of transcription factor function by an amino acid: activation of Put3p by proline. Sellick, C.A., Reece, R.J. EMBO J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. The DNA binding activity of the RIPE3b1 transcription factor of insulin appears to be influenced by tyrosine phosphorylation. Matsuoka , T., Zhao, L., Stein, R. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. A bZIP protein from halophilic archaea: structural features and dimer formation of cGvpE from Halobacterium salinarum. Plösser, P., Pfeifer, F. Mol. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Transcription of chromosomal rRNA genes by both RNA polymerase I and II in yeast uaf30 mutants lacking the 30 kDa subunit of transcription factor UAF. Siddiqi, I.N., Dodd, J.A., Vu, L., Eliason, K., Oakes, M.L., Keener, J., Moore, R., Young, M.K., Nomura, M. EMBO J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Transcriptional repression by Drosophila and mammalian Polycomb group proteins in transfected mammalian cells. Bunker, C.A., Kingston, R.E. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Role for ADA/GCN5 products in antagonizing chromatin-mediated transcriptional repression. Pollard, K.J., Peterson, C.L. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Gli1 can rescue the in vivo function of Gli2. Bai, C.B., Joyner, A.L. Development (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. TAFII-independent activation mediated by human TBP in the presence of the positive cofactor PC4. Wu, S.Y., Kershnar, E., Chiang, C.M. EMBO J. (1998) [Pubmed]
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