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Disease relevance of Xerophthalmia


High impact information on Xerophthalmia

  • Oral administration of vitamin A is not only more practical but appears to be just as effective as parenteral administration in the treatment of severe xerophthalmia [6].
  • A nutrition rehabilitation centre for treatment of children with xerophthalmia was established in Madurai, India. Treatment was based on provision of locally available food, rich in protein and beta-carotene and cheap enough for the families concerned to buy at home [7].
  • Preschool children, 3-6 y of age, with (n = 118) and without (n = 118) xerophthalmia were assigned to receive oral vitamin A (60 mg retinol equivalent) or placebo and were seen at 5 wk [8].
  • RESULTS: At baseline, alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (AGP) was elevated in 42.9% and 23.5% (P < 0.003) and C-reactive protein (CRP) was elevated in 17.7% and 13.7% (NS) of children with and without xerophthalmia, respectively [8].
  • But until recently clinicians were almost wholly absorbed by the ocular changes accompanying deficiency (xerophthalmia), and scientists with the vitamin's metabolic role in the rhodopsin cycle [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Xerophthalmia


Biological context of Xerophthalmia


Anatomical context of Xerophthalmia


Gene context of Xerophthalmia

  • Vitamin A activity of buriti (Mauritia vinifera Mart) and its effectiveness in the treatment and prevention of xerophthalmia [18].
  • There was no functional or radiological difference between the RA-BR and RA groups, and except for xerophthalmia, which was more common in patients with RA-BR than patients with RA, there was no difference in extra-articular or laboratory features [19].
  • In SLE anti-Ro is associated with xerophthalmia but not rheumatoid factor (RF) [20].
  • Xerophthalmia and anterior-segment blindness among preschool-age children in El Salvador [21].
  • Anti-RNP antibodies alone correlated with the presence of Raynaud's phenomenon and arthritis (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively), while anti-Ro/SSA antibodies alone correlated with xerostomia and xerophthalmia (P < 0.01) [22].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Xerophthalmia


  1. Acid proteases and histologic correlations in experimental ulceration in vitamin A deficient rabbit corneas. Twining, S.S., Hatchell, D.L., Hyndiuk, R.A., Nassif, K.F. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1985) [Pubmed]
  2. Recommendations for indicators: night blindness during pregnancy--a simple tool to assess vitamin A deficiency in a population. Christian, P. J. Nutr. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Interactions between vitamin A deficiency and Plasmodium berghei infection in the rat. Stoltzfus, R.J., Jalal, F., Harvey, P.W., Nesheim, M.C. J. Nutr. (1989) [Pubmed]
  4. Measles blindness. Semba, R.D., Bloem, M.W. Survey of ophthalmology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Assessment of bromhexine as a treatment regimen in Sjögren's syndrome-like disease in the NOD (non-obese diabetic) mouse. Nanni, J.M., Nguyen, K.H., Alford, C.E., Robinson, C.P., Stewart, C.M., Maeda, N., Humphreys-Beher, M.G. Clinical and experimental rheumatology. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Oral versus intramuscular vitamin A in the treatment of xerophthalmia. Sommer, A., Muhilal, n.u.l.l., Tarwotjo, I., Djunaedi, E., Glover, J. Lancet (1980) [Pubmed]
  7. A nutrition rehabilitation centre for children with xerophthalmia. Venkataswamy, G., Krishnamurthy, K.A., Chandra, P., Kabir, S.A., Pirie, A. Lancet (1976) [Pubmed]
  8. Hyporetinolemia and acute phase proteins in children with and without xerophthalmia. Semba, R.D., Muhilal, n.u.l.l., West, K.P., Natadisastra, G., Eisinger, W., Lan, Y., Sommer, A. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Xerophthalmia and vitamin A status. Sommer, A. Progress in retinal and eye research. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Curing early xerophthalmia without vitamin A concentrate. Pirie, A., Kabir, S.A. Lancet (1983) [Pubmed]
  11. Rose Bengal and Lissamine green vital stains: useful diagnostic aids for early stages of xerophthalmia? Kusin, J.A., Soewondo, W., Sinaga, H.S. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1979) [Pubmed]
  12. An evaluation of strategies to control vitamin A deficiency in the Philippines. Solon, F., Fernandez, T.L., Latham, M.C., Popkin, B.M. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1979) [Pubmed]
  13. Xerophthalmia and growth in preschool Indonesian children. Tarwotjo, I., Katz, J., West, K.P., Tielsch, J.M., Sommer, A. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. The epidemiology of vitamin A deficiency and xerophthalmia. Tielsch, J.M., Sommer, A. Annu. Rev. Nutr. (1984) [Pubmed]
  15. Vitamin A deficiency and xerophthalmia in western Yemen. Rosen, D.S., al Sharif, Z., Bashir, M., al Shabooti, A., Pizzarello, L.D. European journal of clinical nutrition. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Goblet cell response to vitamin A treatment for corneal xerophthalmia. Sommer, A., Green, W.R. Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  17. Vitamin A is present as retinol in the tears of humans and rabbits. Ubels, J.L., MacRae, S.M. Curr. Eye Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  18. Vitamin A activity of buriti (Mauritia vinifera Mart) and its effectiveness in the treatment and prevention of xerophthalmia. Mariath, J.G., Lima, M.C., Santos, L.M. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1989) [Pubmed]
  19. Bronchiectasis and rheumatoid arthritis: a clinical study. McMahon, M.J., Swinson, D.R., Shettar, S., Wolstenholme, R., Chattopadhyay, C., Smith, P., Johns, P., Crosby, N.H. Ann. Rheum. Dis. (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Antibody to Ro in a population of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: distribution, clinical and serological associations. Dillon, C.F., Jones, J.V., Reichlin, M. J. Rheumatol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  21. Xerophthalmia and anterior-segment blindness among preschool-age children in El Salvador. Sommer, A., Quesada, J., Doty, M., Faich, G. Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  22. Undifferentiated connective tissue diseases: the clinical and serological profiles of 91 patients followed for at least 1 year. Mosca, M., Tavoni, A., Neri, R., Bencivelli, W., Bombardieri, S. Lupus (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. A prevalence study of vitamin A deficiency and xerophthalmia in northeastern Thailand. Bloem, M.W., Wedel, M., Egger, R.J., Speek, A.J., Chusilp, K., Saowakontha, S., Schreurs, W.H. Am. J. Epidemiol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  24. Mass supplementation of vitamin A linked to National Immunization Day. Swami, H.M., Thakur, J.S., Bhatia, S.P. Indian journal of pediatrics. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Xerophthalmia and measles in Kenya. Jacques, J., Sauter, M. Documenta ophthalmologica. Advances in ophthalmology. (1976) [Pubmed]
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