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Disease relevance of Xerostomia


High impact information on Xerostomia


Chemical compound and disease context of Xerostomia

  • A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was undertaken to test the safety and efficacy of pilocarpine, particularly in reversing the decrease in the production of saliva and other manifestations of xerostomia [1].
  • Saliva specimens provide an economical and practical method for melatonin assessment, however, in older adults, issues such as hyposalivation and low melatonin levels limit the feasibility and validity, respectively, of saliva melatonin [10].
  • Plaque concentrations of cariogenic organisms increased during the first yr of radiation-induced xerostomia and fluoride gel use, before starting to decline [11].
  • All patients with positive rose bengal staining results had associated xerostomia [12].
  • The major side effects of racemic oxybutynin (OXY), which is used in the treatment of urinary incontinence are dry mouth (xerostomia) and blurred vision (mydriasis) [13].

Biological context of Xerostomia


Anatomical context of Xerostomia


Gene context of Xerostomia


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Xerostomia


  1. Oral pilocarpine for post-irradiation xerostomia in patients with head and neck cancer. Johnson, J.T., Ferretti, G.A., Nethery, W.J., Valdez, I.H., Fox, P.C., Ng, D., Muscoplat, C.C., Gallagher, S.C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Venlafaxine in management of hot flashes in survivors of breast cancer: a randomised controlled trial. Loprinzi, C.L., Kugler, J.W., Sloan, J.A., Mailliard, J.A., LaVasseur, B.I., Barton, D.L., Novotny, P.J., Dakhil, S.R., Rodger, K., Rummans, T.A., Christensen, B.J. Lancet (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Oral pilocarpine hydrochloride for the treatment of refractory xerostomia associated with chronic graft-versus-host disease. Singhal, S., Mehta, J., Rattenbury, H., Treleaven, J., Powles, R. Blood (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. The use of oral pilocarpine in xerostomia and Sjögren's syndrome. Nusair, S., Rubinow, A. Semin. Arthritis Rheum. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Protective effect of amifostine on dental health after radiotherapy of the head and neck. Rudat, V., Meyer, J., Momm, F., Bendel, M., Henke, M., Strnad, V., Grötz, K., Schulte, A. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Xerostomia associated with didanosine. Valentine, C., Deenmamode, J., Sherwood, R. Lancet (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Phase III randomized trial of amifostine as a radioprotector in head and neck cancer. Brizel, D.M., Wasserman, T.H., Henke, M., Strnad, V., Rudat, V., Monnier, A., Eschwege, F., Zhang, J., Russell, L., Oster, W., Sauer, R. J. Clin. Oncol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Efficacy and safety of tizanidine in the treatment of spasticity in patients with spinal cord injury. North American Tizanidine Study Group. Nance, P.W., Bugaresti, J., Shellenberger, K., Sheremata, W., Martinez-Arizala, A. Neurology (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Assessment of MK-467, a peripheral alpha 2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, with intravenous clonidine. Warren, J.B., Dollery, C.T., Sciberras, D., Goldberg, M.R. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. The validity and feasibility of saliva melatonin assessment in the elderly. Gooneratne, N.S., Metlay, J.P., Guo, W., Pack, F.M., Kapoor, S., Pack, A.I. J. Pineal Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Effect of continuous fluoride gel use on plaque fluoride retention and microbial activity. Brown, L.R., White, J.O., Horton, I.M., Dreizen, S., Streckfuss, J.L. J. Dent. Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  12. Sjögren's syndrome: a stepwise approach to the use of diagnostic tests. Coll, J., Porta, M., Rubiés-Prat, J., Gutiérrez-Cebollada, J., Tomás, S. Ann. Rheum. Dis. (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. Enantiomers of oxybutynin: in vitro pharmacological characterization at M1, M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors and in vivo effects on urinary bladder contraction, mydriasis and salivary secretion in guinea pigs. Noronha-Blob, L., Kachur, J.F. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Characterization of the synthesis and secretion of transforming growth factor-alpha from salivary glands and saliva. Humphreys-Beher, M.G., Macauley, S.P., Chegini, N., van Setten, G., Purushotham, K., Stewart, C., Wheeler, T.T., Schultz, G.S. Endocrinology (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Acupuncture for pilocarpine-resistant xerostomia following radiotherapy for head and neck malignancies. Johnstone, P.A., Peng, Y.P., May, B.C., Inouye, W.S., Niemtzow, R.C. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. A phase II study to assess the efficacy of amifostine for submandibular/sublingual salivary sparing during the treatment of head and neck cancer with intensity modulated radiation therapy for parotid salivary sparing. Rosenthal, D.I., Chambers, M.S., Weber, R.S., Eisbruch, A. Semin. Oncol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Clinical dose-response studies with guanfacine (BS 100-141), a new antihypertensive agent. MacCarthy, P., Isaac, P., Frost, G., Freeman, A., Stokes, G. Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  18. Effects of hyposalivation on the oral microflora of rats fed sucrose or wheat flour diets. Ooshima, T., Yoshida, T., Hashida, T., Izumitani, A., Sobue, S., Hamada, S. Caries Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Pilocarpine treatment of salivary gland hypofunction and dry mouth (xerostomia). Fox, P.C., Atkinson, J.C., Macynski, A.A., Wolff, A., Kung, D.S., Valdez, I.H., Jackson, W., Delapenha, R.A., Shiroky, J., Baum, B.J. Arch. Intern. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Sjögren's syndrome in the NOD mouse model is an interleukin-4 time-dependent, antibody isotype-specific autoimmune disease. Gao, J., Killedar, S., Cornelius, J.G., Nguyen, C., Cha, S., Peck, A.B. J. Autoimmun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. High prevalence of subclinical Sjögren's syndrome features in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease. Coll, J., Anglada, J., Tomas, S., Reth, P., Goday, A., Millan, M., Pujol-Borrell, R., Corominas, J. J. Rheumatol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Prophylactic effects of pilocarpine hydrochloride on xerostomia models induced by X-ray irradiation in rats. Asari, T., Komatsu, Y., Misawa, K., Hara, K., Akahane, M. Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. The use of pilocarpine hydrochloride to prevent xerostomia in a child treated with high dose radiotherapy for nasopharynx carcinoma. Deutsch, M. Oral Oncol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Lactoferrin, amylase and mucin MUC5B and their relation to the oral microflora in hyposalivation of different origins. Almståhl, A., Wikström, M., Groenink, J. Oral Microbiol. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. Major salivary gland dysfunction in patients with hematological malignancies receiving interleukin-2-based immunotherapy post-autologous blood stem cell transplantation (ABSCT). Nagler, A., Nagler, R., Ackerstein, A., Levi, S., Marmary, Y. Bone Marrow Transplant. (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. Mucin-containing lozenges in the treatment of intraoral problems associated with Sjögren's syndrome. A double-blind crossover study in 42 patients. Gravenmade, E.J., Vissink, A. Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. Radioprotective effect of amifostine in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Bourhis, J., Rosine, D. Semin. Oncol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Concomitant pilocarpine during head and neck irradiation is associated with decreased posttreatment xerostomia. Zimmerman, R.P., Mark, R.J., Tran, L.M., Juillard, G.F. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1997) [Pubmed]
  29. Does salivary gland scintigraphy predict response to pilocarpine in patients with post-radiotherapy xerostomia? Cooper, R.A., Cowan, R.A., Owens, S.E., Jeans, S.P., Roberts, J.K., Hillel, P.G., Slevin, N.J., Allan, E., Gupta, N.K., Collins, C.D. European journal of nuclear medicine. (1999) [Pubmed]
  30. Influence of intravenous amifostine on xerostomia, tumor control, and survival after radiotherapy for head-and- neck cancer: 2-year follow-up of a prospective, randomized, phase III trial. Wasserman, T.H., Brizel, D.M., Henke, M., Monnier, A., Eschwege, F., Sauer, R., Strnad, V. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. The prevalence of xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction in a cohort of HIV-positive and at-risk women. Navazesh, M., Mulligan, R., Komaroff, E., Redford, M., Greenspan, D., Phelan, J. J. Dent. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
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