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Chemical Compound Review

Red Dye No. 2     trisodium (4Z)-3-oxo-4-[(4...

Synonyms: AMARANTH, Bordeaux, Amaranthe, Lissamine, Azorubine S, ...
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Disease relevance of EINECS 211-385-1

  • When an extracellular dye, Lissamine green, or 51Cr-labeled spleen cells were injected iv into C3H mice bearing small, partially necrotic 3-methylcholanthrene-induced transplantable fibrosarcomas (McC3), the tumor content of these circulating elements per unit weight was substantially lower than that of other selected organs [1].
  • Artesunate is a key antimalarial drug in the treatment of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria in southeast Asia. We investigated the distribution of counterfeit artesunate tablets by use of the validated, simple, and inexpensive Fast Red TR dye technique [2].
  • Rose Bengal and Lissamine green vital stains: useful diagnostic aids for early stages of xerophthalmia [3]?
  • Addition of 1 mg amaranth (FD&C Red No. 2) to the top agar of Salmonella/S9 assay plates decreased the yield of revertants induced by 20 micrograms 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) by over 50% and additional amaranth completely eliminated the mutagenic response [4].
  • Detection of measles antigen in conjunctival epithelial lesions staining by lissamine green during measles virus infection [5].

High impact information on EINECS 211-385-1


Chemical compound and disease context of EINECS 211-385-1


Biological context of EINECS 211-385-1

  • A wide spread of Pg values in individual glomeruli and the absence of tubular flow despite the appearance of i.v. injected lissamine green in a quadrant of surface glomeruli suggested the possibility of a greatly increased, glomerular capillary resistance [13].
  • Studies of histology, lissamine green distributions, binding of tritiated POR, and radiation and POR cytotoxicity suggested that tumors in old mice contained a larger proportion of poorly perfused tumor cells, and that cells in these regions were resistant to radiation and sensitive to POR [14].
  • Comparative genomic hybridization with lissamine- and fluorescein-labeled nucleotides [15].
  • The difference between the effect of 0.1% rose bengal and 0.1% lissamine green on cell viability was not statistically significant (p = 0.83) [16].
  • Naphthol AS-BI produced by this reaction is then coupled to Fast Red TR diazonium salt at the site of hydrolysis [17].

Anatomical context of EINECS 211-385-1


Associations of EINECS 211-385-1 with other chemical compounds


Gene context of EINECS 211-385-1

  • After fixation with paraformaldehyde, the cells were incubated with mouse monoclonal antibodies to a surface marker for activated T cells (CD25, interleukin-2 receptor) and the reaction visualized with anti-mouse alkaline phosphatase conjugated antibodies and a Fast Red substrate [27].
  • The detection system for both ICC and ISH was streptavidin-conjugated alkaline phosphatase with Fast Red TR chromogen [28].
  • An in situ hybridization technique with HNPP (2-hydroxy-3-naphthoic acid-2'-phenylanilide phosphate) and Fast Red TR was used to detect specific bacterial cells at the single-cell level [29].
  • By immunocytochemistry, first NE, E, DBH, and/or PNMT was detected by an indirect immunoalkaline phosphatase technique with Fast Red or Fast Blue as substrate [30].
  • After reaction with anti-LPS monoclonal antibodies, the transferred antigens were visualized by reaction with alkaline-phosphatase-labelled anti-mouse antibodies and a substrate containing naphthol phosphoric acid and Fast Red [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of EINECS 211-385-1


  1. Passive local anaphylaxis: demonstration of antitumor activity and complementation of intratumor BCG. Lynch, N.R., Salomon, J.C. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1977) [Pubmed]
  2. Fake artesunate in southeast Asia. Newton, P., Proux, S., Green, M., Smithuis, F., Rozendaal, J., Prakongpan, S., Chotivanich, K., Mayxay, M., Looareesuwan, S., Farrar, J., Nosten, F., White, N.J. Lancet (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Rose Bengal and Lissamine green vital stains: useful diagnostic aids for early stages of xerophthalmia? Kusin, J.A., Soewondo, W., Sinaga, H.S. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1979) [Pubmed]
  4. Amaranth suppresses the mutagenicity of 2-acetylaminofluorene by lowering the concentration of NADPH in top agar. McCalla, D.R., Kaiser, C., Lu, C., Messier, F., Quilliam, M.A. Mutat. Res. (1981) [Pubmed]
  5. Detection of measles antigen in conjunctival epithelial lesions staining by lissamine green during measles virus infection. Nommensen, F.E., Dekkers, N.W. J. Med. Virol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  6. Pilot clinical trial of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) versus placebo for Sjögren's syndrome. Pillemer, S.R., Brennan, M.T., Sankar, V., Leakan, R.A., Smith, J.A., Grisius, M., Ligier, S., Radfar, L., Kok, M.R., Kingman, A., Fox, P.C. Arthritis Rheum. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Increased infarct size in uremic rats: reduced ischemia tolerance? Dikow, R., Kihm, L.P., Zeier, M., Kapitza, J., Törnig, J., Amann, K., Tiefenbacher, C., Ritz, E. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Sialidase activity of influenza A virus in an endocytic pathway enhances viral replication. Suzuki, T., Takahashi, T., Guo, C.T., Hidari, K.I., Miyamoto, D., Goto, H., Kawaoka, Y., Suzuki, Y. J. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Singlet energy transfer as the main pathway in the sensitization of near-infrared Nd3+ luminescence by dansyl and lissamine dyes. Hebbink, G.A., Klink, S.I., Grave, L., Oude Alink, P.G., van Veggel, F.C. Chemphyschem : a European journal of chemical physics and physical chemistry. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Fluorescence of dyes adsorbed on highly organized, nanostructured gold surfaces. Levi, S.A., Mourran, A., Spatz, J.P., van Veggel, F.C., Reinhoudt, D.N., Möller, M. Chemistry (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany) (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Distribution of nitroimidazoles and L-phenylalanine mustard in mammary adenocarcinoma 16/C tumors. Noker, P.E., Simpson-Herren, L., Wagoner, S.D. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  12. The effects of six months of contact lens wear on the tear film, ocular surfaces, and symptoms of presbyopes. du Toit, R., Situ, P., Simpson, T., Fonn, D. Optometry and vision science : official publication of the American Academy of Optometry. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Glomerular hemodynamics in mercury-induced acute renal failure. Wolfert, A.I., Laveri, L.A., Reilly, K.M., Oken, K.R., Oken, D.E. Kidney Int. (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. Porfiromycin as an adjunct to radiotherapy in young and old mice. Rockwell, S., Hughes, C.S., Keyes, S.R., Sartorelli, A.C., Kennedy, K.A. Exp. Gerontol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Comparative genomic hybridization with lissamine- and fluorescein-labeled nucleotides. Rosenberg, C., van Gijlswijk, R.P., Vos, C.B., Wiegant, J., Cornelisse, C.J., Tanke, H.J., Raap, A.K. Cytometry. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Evaluation of the effect of lissamine green and rose bengal on human corneal epithelial cells. Kim, J., Foulks, G.N. Cornea (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Confocal microscopical analysis of epithelial cell heterogeneity in mouse Peyer's patches. James, P.S., Rossetti, C., Smith, M.W., Cremaschi, D. Histochem. J. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Effects of perinatal asphyxia on cell proliferation and neuronal phenotype evaluated with organotypic hippocampal cultures. Morales, P., Reyes, P., Klawitter, V., Huaiquín, P., Bustamante, D., Fiedler, J., Herrera-Marschitz, M. Neuroscience (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Lissamine green staining in the clinical diagnosis of xerophthalmia. Emran, N., Sommer, A. Arch. Ophthalmol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  20. Direct flow cytometric quantification of alkaline phosphatase activity in rat bone marrow stromal cells. Kamalia, N., McCulloch, C.A., Tenenbaum, H.C., Limeback, H. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. A quantitative assessment of the location and width of Marx's line along the marginal zone of the human eyelid. Donald, C., Hamilton, L., Doughty, M.J., Hughes, C. Optometry and vision science : official publication of the American Academy of Optometry. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. The cause of a depressed glomerular filtration rate after an ischaemic insult: whole kidney and superficial nephron study in the dog. Heller, J., Horácek, V. Pflugers Arch. (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. Post-transcriptional control of cell type-specific gene expression in bundle sheath and mesophyll chloroplasts of Amaranthus hypochondriacus. Boinski, J.J., Wang, J.L., Xu, P., Hotchkiss, T., Berry, J.O. Plant Mol. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Determination of sulphonate dyes in water by ion-interaction high-performance liquid chromatography. Pérez-Urquiza, M., Prat, M.D., Beltrán, J.L. Journal of chromatography. A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. A sensitive fluorescence in situ hybridization technique for detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Chueh, L.L., Lee, K.H., Jeng, C.R., Pang, V.F. J. Virol. Methods (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Four-dimensional factor analysis of confocal image sequences (4D-FAMIS) to detect and characterize low copy numbers of human papillomavirus DNA by FISH in HeLa and SiHa cells. Kahn, E., Lizard, G., Pélégrini, M., Frouin, F., Roignot, P., Chardonnet, Y., Di Paola, R. Journal of microscopy. (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Whole-blood microassay for immunodetection of antigen specific cell mediated immunity using bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Smedman, L., Joki, A., Perlmann, P., Troye-Blomberg, M. Journal of clinical & laboratory immunology. (1991) [Pubmed]
  28. Is cytomegalovirus associated with renal disease in AIDS patients? Nadasdy, T., Miller, K.W., Johnson, L.D., Hanson-Painton, O., DeBault, L.E., Burns, D.K., Hawkins, E., Silva, F.G. Mod. Pathol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  29. Detection of specific bacterial cells with 2-hydroxy-3-naphthoic acid-2'-phenylanilide phosphate and fast red TR in situ hybridization. Yamaguchi, N., Inaoka, S., Tani, K., Kenzaka, T., Nasu, M. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. Simultaneous immunoenzymatic staining of catecholamines, catecholamine-biosynthesizing enzymes, and bromodeoxyuridine in adrenal medullary cells of the rat. Ubink, R., Lange, W., Verhofstad, A. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  31. Immunoenzymatic analysis by monoclonal antibodies of bacterial lipopolysaccharides after transfer to nitrocellulose. Sidberry, H., Kaufman, B., Wright, D.C., Sadoff, J. J. Immunol. Methods (1985) [Pubmed]
  32. Tracer studies in the rat demonstrate misdirected filtration and peritubular filtrate spreading in nephrons with segmental glomerulosclerosis. Kriz, W., Hartmann, I., Hosser, H., Hähnel, B., Kränzlin, B., Provoost, A., Gretz, N. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  33. Microvascular deterioration: implications for reperfusion. Fukuyama, T., Sobel, B.E., Roberts, R. Cardiovasc. Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  34. Changes in fluid compartments in hamster renal papilla due to peristalsis in the pelvic wall. Schmidt-Nielsen, B., Graves, B. Kidney Int. (1982) [Pubmed]
  35. Maize seedlings show cell-specific responses to heat shock as revealed by expression of RNA and protein. Greyson, R.I., Yang, Z., Bouchard, R.A., Frappier, J.R., Atkinson, B.G., Banasikowska, E., Walden, D.B. Dev. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  36. 3D confocal reconstruction of gene expression in mouse. Hecksher-Sørensen, J., Sharpe, J. Mech. Dev. (2001) [Pubmed]
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