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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Parasitemia


High impact information on Parasitemia

  • Although treatment with clindamycin and quinine reduces the duration of parasitemia, infection may still persist and recrudesce and side effects are common [5].
  • IFN-gamma provides a growth stimulus for T. brucei brucei, and infected CD8- mice had much lower parasitemia and survived longer than CD8+ mice [6].
  • The 13 patients who completed their courses of quinidine with or without exchange transfusion had a parasitemia level of 1.1 percent or less 28 to 72 hours (mean, 44.4 hours) after the start of therapy [7].
  • When owl monkeys (Aotus lemurinus lemurinus) infected with chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum were treated with chloroquine plus desipramine, their parasitemias were rapidly suppressed [8].
  • Erythrocytes from infected mice with T. cruzi parasitemia were agglutinated by peanut lectin and the hemagglutination titer was correlated with the degree of parasitemia [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Parasitemia

  • Blood concentrations of mefloquine were lower during the second week of the alternate-week regimen than during the first week, suggesting that blood levels are too low during the second week to suppress parasitemia [10].
  • Thus, monkeys immunized with the antigen solubilized in a nonionic detergent developed much lower parasitemia than monkeys immunized with denatured antigen (antigen eluted from SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) [11].
  • In cohort 2, none of the 10 volunteers receiving azithromycin prophylaxis (100%) developed parasitemia [12].
  • In one patient, pentamidine was stopped after 7 days because of increased creatinine concentration, and this amount of drug appeared adequate to control the parasitemia [13].
  • T cruzi parasitemias detected on three occasions were successfully treated with benzonidazole [14].

Biological context of Parasitemia


Anatomical context of Parasitemia

  • However, P-selectin-deficient mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA had a cumulative incidence of cerebral malaria which was significantly reduced compared to wild-type animals (4.5% versus 80%, respectively), despite identical levels of parasitemia, platelet and leukocyte accumulation [20].
  • The persistence of lesions and the enlargement of draining lymph nodes despite a normal Th1 response and control of parasitemia indicate that there may be a dissociation of the inflammatory pathology and clearance of parasites in SOCS1(+/-) mice [21].
  • These data show that immune responses mediated by CD4+ T cells of the Th1 subset are capable of limiting infection beyond the initial acute phase, but that they do not eliminate parasitemia [22].
  • Although the infection with P. berghei XAT enhanced NK cell lytic activity of splenocytes, depletion of NK1.1(+) cells caused by the treatment of mice with anti-NK1.1 antibody affected neither parasitemia nor IFN-gamma production by their splenocytes [23].
  • Parenteral interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) activates murine macrophages to inhibit Trypanosoma cruzi multiplication and diminishes parasitemia and mortality in acute infection [24].

Gene context of Parasitemia

  • A peptide corresponding to residues 70-80 of the TNF-alpha polypeptide was synthesized and shown to enhance human PMN-mediated killing of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro and reduced the Plasmodium chabaudi parasitemia in mice [25].
  • In contrast, parasitemia levels and survival in Stat6-deficient mice were not different from wild type [26].
  • Interestingly, the ability to control the first parasitemia peak was not compromised in acutely infected CD28(-/-) mice, but CD28(-/-) mice failed to eradicate the parasites that persisted in the blood for >3 mo after infection [27].
  • As expected, Stat4-/- mice deficient in type 1 cytokine responses were highly susceptible to infection, exhibiting increased parasitemia levels relative to wild-type mice and 100% mortality [26].
  • Consistent with the importance of ICAM-1 in host resistance, ICAM-1 knockout (KO) mice were highly susceptible to T. cruzi infection, as assessed by mortality rate, parasitemia, and heart tissue parasitism [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Parasitemia


  1. Effect of iron chelation therapy on recovery from deep coma in children with cerebral malaria. Gordeuk, V., Thuma, P., Brittenham, G., McLaren, C., Parry, D., Backenstose, A., Biemba, G., Msiska, R., Holmes, L., McKinley, E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Erythrocyte membrane-associated immunoglobulins during malaria infection of mice. Lustig, H.J., Nussenzweig, V., Nussenzweig, R.S. J. Immunol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  3. Tumor necrosis factor alpha p55 receptor is important for development of memory responses to blood-stage malaria infection. Li, C., Langhorne, J. Infect. Immun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Efficacy of azithromycin for treating Babesia microti infection in the hamster model. Weiss, L.M., Wittner, M., Wasserman, S., Oz, H.S., Retsema, J., Tanowitz, H.B. J. Infect. Dis. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Persistent parasitemia after acute babesiosis. Krause, P.J., Spielman, A., Telford, S.R., Sikand, V.K., McKay, K., Christianson, D., Pollack, R.J., Brassard, P., Magera, J., Ryan, R., Persing, D.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. CD8 is critically involved in lymphocyte activation by a T. brucei brucei-released molecule. Olsson, T., Bakhiet, M., Höjeberg, B., Ljungdahl, A., Edlund, C., Andersson, G., Ekre, H.P., Fung-Leung, W.P., Mak, T., Wigzell, H. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Treatment of severe malaria in the United States with a continuous infusion of quinidine gluconate and exchange transfusion. Miller, K.D., Greenberg, A.E., Campbell, C.C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. Reversal of chloroquine resistance in malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum by desipramine. Bitonti, A.J., Sjoerdsma, A., McCann, P.P., Kyle, D.E., Oduola, A.M., Rossan, R.N., Milhous, W.K., Davidson, D.E. Science (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. A developmentally regulated neuraminidase activity in Trypanosoma cruzi. Pereira, M.E. Science (1983) [Pubmed]
  10. Effectiveness and tolerance of long-term malaria prophylaxis with mefloquine. Need for a better dosing regimen. Lobel, H.O., Bernard, K.W., Williams, S.L., Hightower, A.W., Patchen, L.C., Campbell, C.C. JAMA (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. Immunization with a Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface antigen induces a partial immunity in monkeys. Perrin, L.H., Merkli, B., Gabra, M.S., Stocker, J.W., Chizzolini, C., Richle, R. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  12. Prophylaxis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria with azithromycin administered to volunteers. Anderson, S.L., Berman, J., Kuschner, R., Wesche, D., Magill, A., Wellde, B., Schneider, I., Dunne, M., Schuster, B.G. Ann. Intern. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Response of babesiosis to pentamidine therapy. Francioli, P.B., Keithly, J.S., Jones, T.C., Brandstetter, R.D., Wolf, D.J. Ann. Intern. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  14. Heart transplantation in Chagas' disease. 10 years after the initial experience. de Carvalho, V.B., Sousa, E.F., Vila, J.H., da Silva, J.P., Caiado, M.R., Araujo, S.R., Macruz, R., Zerbini, E.J. Circulation (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Deferoxamine inhibition of malaria is independent of host iron status. Hershko, C., Peto, T.E. J. Exp. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  16. Inactivation and reactivation of a variant-specific antigen gene in cyclically transmitted Trypanosoma brucei. Delauw, M.F., Pays, E., Steinert, M., Aerts, D., Van Meirvenne, N., Le Ray, D. EMBO J. (1985) [Pubmed]
  17. Differential induction of TGF-beta regulates proinflammatory cytokine production and determines the outcome of lethal and nonlethal Plasmodium yoelii infections. Omer, F.M., de Souza, J.B., Riley, E.M. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. P-selectin contributes to severe experimental malaria but is not required for leukocyte adhesion to brain microvasculature. Chang, W.L., Li, J., Sun, G., Chen, H.L., Specian, R.D., Berney, S.M., Granger, D.N., van der Heyde, H.C. Infect. Immun. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Epitope mapping of trans-sialidase from Trypanosoma cruzi reveals the presence of several cross-reactive determinants. Pitcovsky, T.A., Mucci, J., Alvarez, P., Leguizamón, M.S., Burrone, O., Alzari, P.M., Campetella, O. Infect. Immun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Pathogenic role of P-selectin in experimental cerebral malaria: importance of the endothelial compartment. Combes, V., Rosenkranz, A.R., Redard, M., Pizzolato, G., Lepidi, H., Vestweber, D., Mayadas, T.N., Grau, G.E. Am. J. Pathol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Persistence of lesions in suppressor of cytokine signaling-1-deficient mice infected with Leishmania major. Bullen, D.V., Baldwin, T.M., Curtis, J.M., Alexander, W.S., Handman, E. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. B cells are required for the switch from Th1- to Th2-regulated immune responses to Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi infection. Taylor-Robinson, A.W., Phillips, R.S. Infect. Immun. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Gamma interferon production is critical for protective immunity to infection with blood-stage Plasmodium berghei XAT but neither NO production nor NK cell activation is critical. Yoneto, T., Yoshimoto, T., Wang, C.R., Takahama, Y., Tsuji, M., Waki, S., Nariuchi, H. Infect. Immun. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Endogenous interferon-gamma, macrophage activation, and murine host defense against acute infection with Trypanosoma cruzi. McCabe, R.E., Meagher, S.G., Mullins, B.T. J. Infect. Dis. (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. A synthetic tumor necrosis factor-alpha agonist peptide enhances human polymorphonuclear leukocyte-mediated killing of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro and suppresses Plasmodium chabaudi infection in mice. Kumaratilake, L.M., Rathjen, D.A., Mack, P., Widmer, F., Prasertsiriroj, V., Ferrante, A. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. Increased susceptibility of Stat4-deficient and enhanced resistance in Stat6-deficient mice to infection with Trypanosoma cruzi. Tarleton, R.L., Grusby, M.J., Zhang, L. J. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. Role of CD28 in polyclonal and specific T and B cell responses required for protection against blood stage malaria. Elias, R.M., Sardinha, L.R., Bastos, K.R., Zago, C.A., da Silva, A.P., Alvarez, J.M., Lima, M.R. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 deficiency leads to impaired recruitment of T lymphocytes and enhanced host susceptibility to infection with Trypanosoma cruzi. Michailowsky, V., Celes, M.R., Marino, A.P., Silva, A.A., Vieira, L.Q., Rossi, M.A., Gazzinelli, R.T., Lannes-Vieira, J., Silva, J.S. J. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Experimental Chagas' disease: kinetics of lymphocyte responses and immunological control of the transition from acute to chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Hayes, M.M., Kierszenbaum, F. Infect. Immun. (1981) [Pubmed]
  30. Effects of HIV-1 serostatus, HIV-1 RNA concentration, and CD4 cell count on the incidence of malaria infection in a cohort of adults in rural Malawi. Patnaik, P., Jere, C.S., Miller, W.C., Hoffman, I.F., Wirima, J., Pendame, R., Meshnick, S.R., Taylor, T.E., Molyneux, M.E., Kublin, J.G. J. Infect. Dis. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. A low interleukin-10 tumor necrosis factor-alpha ratio is associated with malaria anemia in children residing in a holoendemic malaria region in western Kenya. Othoro, C., Lal, A.A., Nahlen, B., Koech, D., Orago, A.S., Udhayakumar, V. J. Infect. Dis. (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. Babesiosis in patients with AIDS: a chronic infection presenting as fever of unknown origin. Falagas, M.E., Klempner, M.S. Clin. Infect. Dis. (1996) [Pubmed]
  33. Effect of Plasmodium berghei infection and chloroquine on the hepatic drug metabolizing system of mice. Srivastava, P., Tripathi, L.M., Puri, S.K., Dutta, G.P., Pandey, V.C. Int. J. Parasitol. (1991) [Pubmed]
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