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Disease relevance of Phenylketonurias


Psychiatry related information on Phenylketonurias

  • The "justification hypothesis" attributes mental retardation in phenylketonuria (PKU) to an inability of the heterozygous mother to deliver an appropriate amount of tyrosine to the PKU fetus who, in turn, is unable to correct for this deficiency because of its genetic constitution [6].
  • The results of a postal questionnaire distributed to British members of Mensa failed to confirm an association of superior intelligence with torsion dystonia, retinoblastoma, or phenylketonuria, but were consistent with real associations between high IQ and infantile autism, gout, and myopia [7].
  • Self-esteem of ten children with phenylketonuria was compared with that of seven unaffected siblings of children with PKU in a total of 11 families [8].
  • It has been postulated that the significant incidence of learning disabilities in well-treated patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) may be due, in part, to reduced production of neurotransmitters as a result of deficient tyrosine transport across the neuronal cell membrane [9].
  • Analysis of questionnaires, informal group meetings, and individual interviews with parents and their children with phenylketonuria gave insight on the attitudes and experiences surrounding discontinuance of the phenylalanine-restricted diet [10].

High impact information on Phenylketonurias


Chemical compound and disease context of Phenylketonurias


Biological context of Phenylketonurias


Anatomical context of Phenylketonurias


Gene context of Phenylketonurias


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Phenylketonurias


  1. A single origin of phenylketonuria in Yemenite Jews. Avigad, S., Cohen, B.E., Bauer, S., Schwartz, G., Frydman, M., Woo, S.L., Niny, Y., Shiloh, Y. Nature (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Vitamin B12 deficiency in adolescents and young adults with phenylketonuria. Hanley, W.B., Feigenbaum, A., Clarke, J.T., Schoonheyt, W., Austin, V. Lancet (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. A murine model for human sepiapterin-reductase deficiency. Yang, S., Lee, Y.J., Kim, J.M., Park, S., Peris, J., Laipis, P., Park, Y.S., Chung, J.H., Oh, S.P. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Selective activity of phenylacetate against malignant gliomas: resemblance to fetal brain damage in phenylketonuria. Samid, D., Ram, Z., Hudgins, W.R., Shack, S., Liu, L., Walbridge, S., Oldfield, E.H., Myers, C.E. Cancer Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase deficiency with mild hyperphenylalaninemia. Demos, M.K., Waters, P.J., Vallance, H.D., Lillquist, Y., Makhseed, N., Hyland, K., Blau, N., Connolly, M.B. Ann. Neurol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Cord-blood tyrosine levels in the full-term phenylketonuric fetus and the "justification hypothesis". Scriver, C.R., Cole, D.E., Houghton, S.A., Levy, H.L., Grenier, A., Laberge, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1980) [Pubmed]
  7. Genes for super-intelligence? Sofaer, J.A., Emery, A.E. J. Med. Genet. (1981) [Pubmed]
  8. PKU as a factor in the development of self-esteem. Moen, J.L., Wilcox, R.D., Burns, J.K. J. Pediatr. (1977) [Pubmed]
  9. "Hypotyrosinemia" in phenylketonuria. Hanley, W.B., Lee, A.W., Hanley, A.J., Lehotay, D.C., Austin, V.J., Schoonheyt, W.E., Platt, B.A., Clarke, J.T. Mol. Genet. Metab. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Discontinuing the phenylalamine-restricted diet in young children with PKY. Psychosocial aspects. Pueschel, S.M., Yeatman, S., Hum, C. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. (1977) [Pubmed]
  11. Molecular basis of phenotypic heterogeneity in phenylketonuria. Okano, Y., Eisensmith, R.C., Güttler, F., Lichter-Konecki, U., Konecki, D.S., Trefz, F.K., Dasovich, M., Wang, T., Henriksen, K., Lou, H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Effect of age at loss of dietary control on intellectual performance and behavior of children with phenylketonuria. Holtzman, N.A., Kronmal, R.A., van Doorninck, W., Azen, C., Koch, R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. Hyperphenylalaninemia due to a deficiency of biopterin. A variant form of phenylketonuria. Kaufman, S., Berlow, S., Summer, G.K., Milstien, S., Schulman, J.D., Orloff, S., Spielberg, S., Pueschel, S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  14. Atypical phenylketonuria with normal dihydropteridine reductase activity. Rey, F., Blandin-Savoja, F., Rey, J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  15. An amino-acid substitution involved in phenylketonuria is in linkage disequilibrium with DNA haplotype 2. DiLella, A.G., Marvit, J., Brayton, K., Woo, S.L. Nature (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. Effects of untreated maternal phenylketonuria and hyperphenylalaninemia on the fetus. Levy, H.L., Waisbren, S.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  17. Phenylketonuria: a new method for the simultaneous determination of plasma phenylalanine and tyrosine. Shen, R.S., Abell, C.W. Science (1977) [Pubmed]
  18. Accumulation of a tetrahydroisoquinoline in phenylketonuria. Lasala, J.M., Coscia, C.J. Science (1979) [Pubmed]
  19. Letter: Tetrahydrobiopterin treatment of variant form of phenylketonuria. Danks, D.M., Cotton, R.G., Schlesinger, P. Lancet (1975) [Pubmed]
  20. Aspartame may imperil dietary control of phenylketonuria. Güttler, F., Lou, H. Lancet (1985) [Pubmed]
  21. Molecular analysis of the inheritance of phenylketonuria and mild hyperphenylalaninemia in families with both disorders. Ledley, F.D., Levy, H.L., Woo, S.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  22. Significant phenylalanine hydroxylation in vivo in patients with classical phenylketonuria. Thompson, G.N., Halliday, D. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. Characterization of phenylalanine hydroxylase alleles in untreated phenylketonuria patients from Victoria, Australia: origin of alleles and haplotypes. Ramus, S.J., Treacy, E.P., Cotton, R.G. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. A maximum likelihood map of chromosome 1. Rao, D.C., Keats, B.J., Lalouel, J.M., Morton, N.E., Yee, S. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1979) [Pubmed]
  25. Crystal structure of the catalytic domain of human phenylalanine hydroxylase reveals the structural basis for phenylketonuria. Erlandsen, H., Fusetti, F., Martinez, A., Hough, E., Flatmark, T., Stevens, R.C. Nat. Struct. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. Phenylalanine has no effect on dihydropteridine reductase activity in phenylketonuria fibroblasts. Guttler, F., Kaufman, S., Milstien, S. Lancet (1977) [Pubmed]
  27. Prenatal diagnosis of classic phenylketonuria by DNA analysis. Lidsky, A.S., Güttler, F., Woo, S.L. Lancet (1985) [Pubmed]
  28. Retroviral-mediated gene transfer and expression of human phenylalanine hydroxylase in primary mouse hepatocytes. Peng, H., Armentano, D., MacKenzie-Graham, L., Shen, R.F., Darlington, G., Ledley, F.D., Woo, S.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  29. Illegitimate transcription of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene in lymphocytes for identification of mutations in phenylketonuria. Abadie, V., Jaruzelska, J., Lyonnet, S., Millasseau, P., Berthelon, M., Rey, F., Munnich, A., Rey, J. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  30. No evidence for individual blood-brain barrier phenylalanine transport to influence clinical outcome in typical phenylketonuria patients. Pietz, J., Rupp, A., Burgard, P., Boesch, C., Kreis, R. Ann. Neurol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Evidence for central nervous system glial cell plasticity in phenylketonuria. Dyer, C.A., Kendler, A., Philibotte, T., Gardiner, P., Cruz, J., Levy, H.L. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  32. Tetrahydrobiopterin biosynthesis, regeneration and functions. Thöny, B., Auerbach, G., Blau, N. Biochem. J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. Congenic mapping and genotyping of the tetrahydrobiopterin-deficient hph-1 mouse. Khoo, J.P., Nicoli, T., Alp, N.J., Fullerton, J., Flint, J., Channon, K.M. Mol. Genet. Metab. (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. Phenylketonuria due to a deficiency of dihydropteridine reductase. Kaufman, S., Holtzman, N.A., Milstien, S., Butler, L.J., Krumholz, A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  35. Dopa-responsive dystonia: a clinical and molecular genetic study. Bandmann, O., Valente, E.M., Holmans, P., Surtees, R.A., Walters, J.H., Wevers, R.A., Marsden, C.D., Wood, N.W. Ann. Neurol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  36. Complete correction of hyperphenylalaninemia following liver-directed, recombinant AAV2/8 vector-mediated gene therapy in murine phenylketonuria. Harding, C.O., Gillingham, M.B., Hamman, K., Clark, H., Goebel-Daghighi, E., Bird, A., Koeberl, D.D. Gene Ther. (2006) [Pubmed]
  37. A screening method for biotinidase deficiency in newborns. Heard, G.S., Secor McVoy, J.R., Wolf, B. Clin. Chem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  38. Effects of p-chlorophenylalanine and alpha-methylphenylalanine on amino acid uptake and protein synthesis in mouse neuroblastoma cells. Kelly, C.J., Johnson, T.C. Biochem. J. (1978) [Pubmed]
  39. Capillary zone electrophoresis determination of phenylalanine in serum: a rapid, inexpensive and simple method for the diagnosis of phenylketonuria. Tagliaro, F., Moretto, S., Valentini, R., Gambaro, G., Antonioli, C., Moffa, M., Tatò, L. Electrophoresis (1994) [Pubmed]
  40. Fluorometric method for phenylalanine microplate assay adapted for phenylketonuria screening. Gerasimova, N.S., Steklova, I.V., Tuuminen, T. Clin. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
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