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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Betaretrovirus


High impact information on Betaretrovirus


Chemical compound and disease context of Betaretrovirus


Biological context of Betaretrovirus


Anatomical context of Betaretrovirus

  • Although there have been reports of human cell lines infected with type D retroviruses and of type D-reactive human sera, this is the first evidence of a type D retrovirus infection in a human confirmed by virus isolation, serum reactivity, and viral DNA identification in tumor tissue [18].
  • Sheep endogenous betaretroviruses (enJSRVs) and the hyaluronidase 2 (HYAL2) receptor in the ovine uterus and conceptus [19].

Gene context of Betaretrovirus


  1. A single amino acid substitution within the matrix protein of a type D retrovirus converts its morphogenesis to that of a type C retrovirus. Rhee, S.S., Hunter, E. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Endogenous New World primate retrovirus: interspecies antigenic determinants shared with the major structural protein of type-D RNA viruses of Old World monkeys. Hino, S., Tronick, S.R., Heberling, R.L., Kalter, S.S., Hellman, A., Aaronson, S.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1977) [Pubmed]
  3. Cryoelectron microscopy of mouse mammary tumor virus. Briggs, J.A., Watson, B.E., Gowen, B.E., Fuller, S.D. J. Virol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Structural role of the matrix protein of type D retroviruses in gag polyprotein stability and capsid assembly. Rhee, S.S., Hunter, E. J. Virol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Prevention of simian acquired immune deficiency syndrome with a formalin-inactivated type D retrovirus vaccine. Marx, P.A., Pedersen, N.C., Lerche, N.W., Osborn, K.G., Lowenstine, L.J., Lackner, A.A., Maul, D.H., Kwang, H.S., Kluge, J.D., Zaiss, C.P. J. Virol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  6. Cloning the human betaretrovirus proviral genome from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Xu, L., Sakalian, M., Shen, Z., Loss, G., Neuberger, J., Mason, A. Hepatology (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Mapping the functional domains of HAP95, a protein that binds RNA helicase A and activates the constitutive transport element of type D retroviruses. Yang, J.P., Tang, H., Reddy, T.R., Wong-Staal, F. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Putative phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) binding motifs in ovine betaretrovirus Env proteins are not essential for rodent fibroblast transformation and PI3K/Akt activation. Liu, S.L., Lerman, M.I., Miller, A.D. J. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Identification of the receptor binding domain of the mouse mammary tumor virus envelope protein. Zhang, Y., Rassa, J.C., deObaldia, M.E., Albritton, L.M., Ross, S.R. J. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Type D retrovirus Gag polyprotein interacts with the cytosolic chaperonin TRiC. Hong, S., Choi, G., Park, S., Chung, A.S., Hunter, E., Rhee, S.S. J. Virol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Primate retroviruses: envelope glycoproteins of endogenous type C and type D viruses possess common interspecies antigenic determinants. Devare, S.G., Hanson, R.E., Stephenson, J.R. J. Virol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  12. Sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter type 1 is an auxiliary receptor for baboon endogenous retrovirus. Marin, M., Tailor, C.S., Nouri, A., Kabat, D. J. Virol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. A novel exogenous retrovirus sequence identified in humans. Griffiths, D.J., Venables, P.J., Weiss, R.A., Boyd, M.T. J. Virol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Identification of a cytoplasmic targeting/retention signal in a retroviral Gag polyprotein. Choi, G., Park, S., Choi, B., Hong, S., Lee, J., Hunter, E., Rhee, S.S. J. Virol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Exogenous immunosuppression with methylprednisolone does not reactivate a type D retrovirus in rhesus monkeys. Schultz, K.T., Gravenstein, S., Curro, T., Thomas, C., Ershler, W.B. Microb. Pathog. (1989) [Pubmed]
  16. Sequence relationships of type D retroviruses which cause simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Thayer, R.M., Power, M.D., Bryant, M.L., Gardner, M.B., Barr, P.J., Luciw, P.A. Virology (1987) [Pubmed]
  17. Evaluation of type D retroviruses as diagnostic tools in HIV infections. Krause, H., Kiessig, S., Uckert, W. Biomed. Biochim. Acta (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. Isolation of a type D retrovirus from B-cell lymphomas of a patient with AIDS. Bohannon, R.C., Donehower, L.A., Ford, R.J. J. Virol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Sheep endogenous betaretroviruses (enJSRVs) and the hyaluronidase 2 (HYAL2) receptor in the ovine uterus and conceptus. Dunlap, K.A., Palmarini, M., Adelson, D.L., Spencer, T.E. Biol. Reprod. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. The envelope glycoprotein of human endogenous retrovirus HERV-W induces cellular resistance to spleen necrosis virus. Ponferrada, V.G., Mauck, B.S., Wooley, D.P. Arch. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Envelope-induced cell transformation by ovine betaretroviruses. Alberti, A., Murgia, C., Liu, S.L., Mura, M., Cousens, C., Sharp, M., Miller, A.D., Palmarini, M. J. Virol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Efficient in vivo and in vitro assembly of retroviral capsids from Gag precursor proteins expressed in bacteria. Klikova, M., Rhee, S.S., Hunter, E., Ruml, T. J. Virol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Biodistribution of the RD114/mammalian type D retrovirus receptor, RDR. Green, B.J., Lee, C.S., Rasko, J.E. The journal of gene medicine. (2004) [Pubmed]
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