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Chemical Compound Review

Muramyl Dipeptide     (4R)-4-[[(2S)-2-[[(2R)-2- [(2R,5S)-3...

Synonyms: LS-71900, BRN 4220745, AC1L24LJ, C19H32N4O11, 53678-77-6, ...
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Disease relevance of Muramyl Dipeptide


Psychiatry related information on Muramyl Dipeptide


High impact information on Muramyl Dipeptide


Chemical compound and disease context of Muramyl Dipeptide


Biological context of Muramyl Dipeptide


Anatomical context of Muramyl Dipeptide


Associations of Muramyl Dipeptide with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Muramyl Dipeptide


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Muramyl Dipeptide


  1. Secretion of microbicidal alpha-defensins by intestinal Paneth cells in response to bacteria. Ayabe, T., Satchell, D.P., Wilson, C.L., Parks, W.C., Selsted, M.E., Ouellette, A.J. Nat. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Necrotic inflammatory reaction induced by muramyl dipeptide in guinea pigs sensitized by tubercle bacilli. Nagao, S., Tanaka, A. J. Exp. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  3. Isolation of tumoricidal macrophages from lung melanoma metastases of mice treated systemically with liposomes containing a lipophilic derivative of muramyl dipeptide. Key, M.E., Talmadge, J.E., Fogler, W.E., Bucana, C., Fidler, I.J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1982) [Pubmed]
  4. Eradication of spontaneous metastases and activation of alveolar macrophages by intravenous injection of liposomes containing muramyl dipeptide. Fidler, I.J., Sone, S., Fogler, W.E., Barnes, Z.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  5. Enhancement of the neonate's nonspecific immunity to Klebsiella infection by muramyl dipeptide, a synthetic immunoadjuvant. Parant, M., Parant, F., Chedid, L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1978) [Pubmed]
  6. Muramyl peptides. Variation of somnogenic activity with structure. Krueger, J.M., Walter, J., Karnovsky, M.L., Chedid, L., Choay, J.P., Lefrancier, P., Lederer, E. J. Exp. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  7. Treatment of experimental myasthenia with autologous idiotypes linked to muramyl dipeptide. Valderrama, R., Eggers, A.E., Moomjy, M., Kao, P.N., Michl, J. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. Interleukin-1 beta and muramyl dipeptide can prevent decreased antibody response associated with sleep deprivation. Brown, R., Price, R.J., King, M.G., Husband, A.J. Brain Behav. Immun. (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Sex differences in the effects of muramyl dipeptide and lipopolysaccharide on locomotor activity and the development of behavioral tolerance in rats. Engeland, C.G., Kavaliers, M., Ossenkopp, K.P. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Analgesic activity of two synthetic immunomodulators, muramyl dipeptide and adamantylamide dipeptide in mice and rats. Horák, P., Masek, K. Methods and findings in experimental and clinical pharmacology. (1988) [Pubmed]
  11. A formalin-inactivated whole SIV vaccine confers protection in macaques. Murphey-Corb, M., Martin, L.N., Davison-Fairburn, B., Montelaro, R.C., Miller, M., West, M., Ohkawa, S., Baskin, G.B., Zhang, J.Y., Putney, S.D. Science (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. Human monocytes activated by immunomodulators in liposomes lyse herpesvirus-infected but not normal cells. Koff, W.C., Fidler, I.J., Showalter, S.D., Chakrabarty, M.K., Hampar, B., Ceccorulli, L.M., Kleinerman, E.S. Science (1984) [Pubmed]
  13. Analysis of human blood monocyte activation at the level of gene expression. Expression of alpha interferon genes during activation of human monocytes by poly IC/LC and muramyl dipeptide. Stevenson, H.C., Dekaban, G.A., Miller, P.J., Benyajati, C., Pearson, M.L. J. Exp. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  14. Stimulating effect of MDP and its adjuvant-active analogues on guinea pig fibroblasts for the production of thymocyte-activating factor. Iribe, H., Koga, T., Kotani, S., Kusumoto, S., Shiba, T. J. Exp. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  15. Streptococcal cell walls and synovial cell activation. Stimulation of synovial fibroblast plasminogen activator activity by monocytes treated with group A streptococcal cell wall sonicates and muramyl dipeptide. Hamilton, J.A., Zabriskie, J.B., Lachman, L.B., Chen, Y.S. J. Exp. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  16. Involvement of macrophages in the eradication of established metastases following intravenous injection of liposomes containing macrophage activators. Fidler, I.J., Barnes, Z., Fogler, W.E., Kirsh, R., Bugelski, P., Poste, G. Cancer Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  17. Activation of alveolar macrophage tumoricidal activity and eradication of experimental metastases by freeze-dried liposomes containing a new lipophilic muramyl dipeptide derivative. Phillips, N.C., Moras, M.L., Chedid, L., Lefrancier, P., Bernard, J.M. Cancer Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  18. Mycobacterium lepraemurium activates macrophages but fails to trigger release of superoxide anion. Mor, N., Goren, M.B., Pabst, M.J. J. Immunol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  19. Regulatory regions and critical residues of NOD2 involved in muramyl dipeptide recognition. Tanabe, T., Chamaillard, M., Ogura, Y., Zhu, L., Qiu, S., Masumoto, J., Ghosh, P., Moran, A., Predergast, M.M., Tromp, G., Williams, C.J., Inohara, N., Núñez, G. EMBO J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Regulation of IL-8 and IL-1beta expression in Crohn's disease associated NOD2/CARD15 mutations. Li, J., Moran, T., Swanson, E., Julian, C., Harris, J., Bonen, D.K., Hedl, M., Nicolae, D.L., Abraham, C., Cho, J.H. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Stimulation of the in vivo dinitrophenyl antibody response to the DNP conjugate of L-glutamic acid60-L-alanine30-L-Tyrosine10 (GAT) polymer by a synthetic adjuvant, muramyl dipeptide (MDP): target cells for adjuvant activity and isotypic pattern of MDP-stimulated response. Lowy, I., Theze, J., Chedid, L. J. Immunol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  22. Activation of macrophages for enhanced release of superoxide anion and greater killing of Candida albicans by injection of muramyl dipeptide. Cummings, N.P., Pabst, M.J., Johnston, R.B. J. Exp. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  23. Increased production of superoxide anion by macrophages exposed in vitro to muramyl dipeptide or lipopolysaccharide. Pabst, M.J., Johnston, R.B. J. Exp. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  24. Modulation of monocyte functions by muramyl tripeptide phosphatidylethanolamine in a phase II study in patients with metastatic melanoma. Liebes, L., Walsh, C.M., Chachoua, A., Oratz, R., Richards, D., Hochster, H., Peace, D., Marino, D., Alba, S., Le Sher, D. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1992) [Pubmed]
  25. Endothelial cell production of nitrogen oxides in response to interferon gamma in combination with tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1, or endotoxin. Kilbourn, R.G., Belloni, P. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1990) [Pubmed]
  26. Interleukin 10 inhibits macrophage microbicidal activity by blocking the endogenous production of tumor necrosis factor alpha required as a costimulatory factor for interferon gamma-induced activation. Oswald, I.P., Wynn, T.A., Sher, A., James, S.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  27. Effects of liposome structure and lipid composition on the activation of the tumoricidal properties of macrophages by liposomes containing muramyl dipeptide. Schroit, A.J., Fidler, I.J. Cancer Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  28. Enhancement of carrier-specific helper T cell function by the synthetic adjuvant, N-acetyl muramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine (MDP). Sugimoto, M., Germain, R.N., Chedid, L., Benacerraf, B. J. Immunol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  29. Inhibition of human IL 2 production by MDP and derivatives. Leclerc, C., Morin, A., Deriaud, E., Chedid, L. J. Immunol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  30. Role of nod2 in the response of macrophages to toll-like receptor agonists. Pauleau, A.L., Murray, P.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Immunoregulatory functions of paf-acether. IV. Enhancement of IL-1 production by muramyl dipeptide-stimulated monocytes. Salem, P., Deryckx, S., Dulioust, A., Vivier, E., Denizot, Y., Damais, C., Dinarello, C.A., Thomas, Y. J. Immunol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  32. A role for Erbin in the regulation of Nod2-dependent NF-kappaB signaling. McDonald, C., Chen, F.F., Ollendorff, V., Ogura, Y., Marchetto, S., Lécine, P., Borg, J.P., Nuñez, G. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. Dendritic cell maturation induced by muramyl dipeptide (MDP) derivatives: monoacylated MDP confers TLR2/TLR4 activation. Uehori, J., Fukase, K., Akazawa, T., Uematsu, S., Akira, S., Funami, K., Shingai, M., Matsumoto, M., Azuma, I., Toyoshima, K., Kusumoto, S., Seya, T. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. Differential induction of human monocyte transforming growth factor beta 1 production and its regulation by interleukin 4. Miller-Graziano, C.L., Zhu, D., Kodys, K. J. Clin. Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  35. Systemic activation of tumoricidal properties in mouse macrophages and inhibition of melanoma metastases by the oral administration of MTP-PE, a lipophilic muramyl dipeptide. Fidler, I.J., Fogler, W.E., Brownbill, A.F., Schumann, G. J. Immunol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  36. Efficient induction of collagen arthritis by the use of a synthetic muramyl dipeptide. Koga, T., Sakamoto, S., Onoue, K., Kotani, S., Sumiyoshi, A. Arthritis Rheum. (1980) [Pubmed]
  37. Effect of a synthetic adjuvant on the induction of primary immune responses in T cell-depleted spleen cultures. Watson, J., Whitlock, C. J. Immunol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  38. Antibody repertoire development in fetal and neonatal piglets. IX. Three pathogen-associated molecular patterns act synergistically to allow germfree piglets to respond to type 2 thymus-independent and thymus-dependent antigens. Butler, J.E., Francis, D.H., Freeling, J., Weber, P., Krieg, A.M. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  39. Up-regulation of inducible cyclooxygenase gene expression by platelet-activating factor in activated rat alveolar macrophages. Thivierge, M., Rola-Pleszczynski, M. J. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
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