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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Plasmodesmata


High impact information on Plasmodesmata

  • These results provide evidence for targeting of plant endogenous mRNA and potentially SUT1 protein through phloem plasmodesmata and for sucrose loading at the plasma membrane of SE [5].
  • Microtubules may target the MP to plasmodesmata, the intercellular channels that connect adjacent cells [6].
  • Thus, PAPK1 represents a novel plant protein kinase that is targeted to plasmodesmata and may play a regulatory role in macromolecular trafficking between plant cells [7].
  • A model for SXD1 function is proposed in which the protein is involved in a chloroplast-to-nucleus signaling pathway necessary for proper late-stage differentiation of maize bundle sheath cells, including the developmentally regulated modification of plasmodesmata [8].
  • The control of single-celled cotton fiber elongation by developmentally reversible gating of plasmodesmata and coordinated expression of sucrose and K+ transporters and expansin [9].

Biological context of Plasmodesmata

  • The movement protein (MP) of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) facilitates the cell-to-cell transport of the viral RNA genome through plasmodesmata (Pd) [10].
  • The results suggest that phosphorylation of pr17 takes place at membranous structures, possibly at the deltoid plasmodesmata connecting the sieve cell-companion cell complex of the phloem, by the activity of PKC-related, membrane-associated protein kinase activity [11].

Anatomical context of Plasmodesmata


Associations of Plasmodesmata with chemical compounds

  • Sirofluor had no effect on the inhibition of F-dextran movement at 32 degrees C in plants expressing the MPP154A gene, indicating that callose formation was not responsible for the failure of the temperature-sensitive mutant protein to alter the size-exclusion limit of plasmodesmata [16].
  • Interestingly, the corresponding maize mutation, sxd1, causes plasmodesmata malfunction, suggesting a link between tocopherol cyclase and plasmodesmata function [17].
  • Analyses with a secretion inhibitor, Brefeldin A, and with an rhd3 mutant defective in the secretion process in root epidermis suggested that intercellular CPC movement is mediated through plasmodesmata [18].
  • We used p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid inhibition of apoplastic loading to distinguish between the two pathways in three species that have abundant minor vein plasmodesmata and are therefore putative symplastic loaders [19].
  • Aniline blue staining and immunolocalization studies showed that callose deposition and degradation at the fiber base correlates with the timing of plasmodesmata closure and reopening, respectively [20].

Gene context of Plasmodesmata

  • In potato and tomato, SUT4 was immunolocalized specifically to enucleate sieve elements, indicating that like SUT1, macromolecular trafficking is required to transport the mRNA or the protein from companion cells through plasmodesmata into the sieve elements [21].
  • Proof of concept that this motif is necessary for Hsp70 gain-of-movement function was obtained through the engineering of a human Hsp70 that acquired the capacity to traffic through plasmodesmata [22].
  • In order to further probe the ER-domain-specific distribution of maize calreticulin at plasmodesmata, root apices were exposed to mannitol-induced osmotic stress [13].
  • Analyses of the AtSUC2 promoter-GFP plants demonstrated that the 27-kD GFP protein can traffic through plasmodesmata from companion cells into sieve elements and migrate within the phloem [23].
  • These walls are rich in plasmodesmata and we show that they are the regions where the longitudinal actin cables appear to attach [24].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Plasmodesmata

  • During chilling, 1,3-beta-D-glucan disappeared from the plasmodesmal channels and wall sleeves, and the plasmodesmata regained the capacity for cell-cell transport, as demonstrated by microinjection of Lucifer Yellow CH and Fluorescein-tagged gibberellic acid [25].


  1. Molecular characterization and biological function of the movement protein of tobacco mosaic virus in transgenic plants. Deom, C.M., Schubert, K.R., Wolf, S., Holt, C.A., Lucas, W.J., Beachy, R.N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Potato virus X TGBp1 induces plasmodesmata gating and moves between cells in several host species whereas CP moves only in N. benthamiana leaves. Howard, A.R., Heppler, M.L., Ju, H.J., Krishnamurthy, K., Payton, M.E., Verchot-Lubicz, J. Virology (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. The 3a protein from cucumber mosaic virus increases the gating capacity of plasmodesmata in transgenic tobacco plants. Vaquero, C., Turner, A.P., Demangeat, G., Sanz, A., Serra, M.T., Roberts, K., García-Luque, I. J. Gen. Virol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Interaction of tomato mosaic virus movement protein with tobacco RIO kinase. Yoshioka, K., Matsushita, Y., Kasahara, M., Konagaya, K., Nyunoya, H. Mol. Cells (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Macromolecular trafficking indicated by localization and turnover of sucrose transporters in enucleate sieve elements. Kühn, C., Franceschi, V.R., Schulz, A., Lemoine, R., Frommer, W.B. Science (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Interaction of tobamovirus movement proteins with the plant cytoskeleton. Heinlein, M., Epel, B.L., Padgett, H.S., Beachy, R.N. Science (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Plasmodesmal-associated protein kinase in tobacco and Arabidopsis recognizes a subset of non-cell-autonomous proteins. Lee, J.Y., Taoka, K., Yoo, B.C., Ben-Nissan, G., Kim, D.J., Lucas, W.J. Plant Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Sucrose export defective1 encodes a novel protein implicated in chloroplast-to-nucleus signaling. Provencher, L.M., Miao, L., Sinha, N., Lucas, W.J. Plant Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. The control of single-celled cotton fiber elongation by developmentally reversible gating of plasmodesmata and coordinated expression of sucrose and K+ transporters and expansin. Ruan, Y.L., Llewellyn, D.J., Furbank, R.T. Plant Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Intramolecular complementing mutations in tobacco mosaic virus movement protein confirm a role for microtubule association in viral RNA transport. Boyko, V., Ashby, J.A., Suslova, E., Ferralli, J., Sterthaus, O., Deom, C.M., Heinlein, M. J. Virol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. The potato leafroll virus 17K movement protein is phosphorylated by a membrane-associated protein kinase from potato with biochemical features of protein kinase C. Sokolova, M., Prüfer, D., Tacke, E., Rohde, W. FEBS Lett. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Changing patterns of localization of the tobacco mosaic virus movement protein and replicase to the endoplasmic reticulum and microtubules during infection. Heinlein, M., Padgett, H.S., Gens, J.S., Pickard, B.G., Casper, S.J., Epel, B.L., Beachy, R.N. Plant Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Maize calreticulin localizes preferentially to plasmodesmata in root apex. Baluska, F., Samaj, J., Napier, R., Volkmann, D. Plant J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Sub-cellular localization of the 25-kDa protein encoded in the triple gene block of potato virus X. Davies, C., Hills, G., Baulcombe, D.C. Virology (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Localization of the P1 protein of potato Y potyvirus in association with cytoplasmic inclusion bodies and in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Arbatova, J., Lehto, K., Pehu, E., Pehu, T. J. Gen. Virol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Plasmodesmatal function is probed using transgenic tobacco plants that express a virus movement protein. Wolf, S., Deom, C.M., Beachy, R., Lucas, W.J. Plant Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Vitamin E biosynthesis: biochemistry meets cell biology. Hofius, D., Sonnewald, U. Trends Plant Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Cell-to-cell movement of the CAPRICE protein in Arabidopsis root epidermal cell differentiation. Kurata, T., Ishida, T., Kawabata-Awai, C., Noguchi, M., Hattori, S., Sano, R., Nagasaka, R., Tominaga, R., Koshino-Kimura, Y., Kato, T., Sato, S., Tabata, S., Okada, K., Wada, T. Development (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Phloem loading. A reevaluation of the relationship between plasmodesmatal frequencies and loading strategies. Turgeon, R., Medville, R. Plant Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Genotypic and developmental evidence for the role of plasmodesmatal regulation in cotton fiber elongation mediated by callose turnover. Ruan, Y.L., Xu, S.M., White, R., Furbank, R.T. Plant Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. A new subfamily of sucrose transporters, SUT4, with low affinity/high capacity localized in enucleate sieve elements of plants. Weise, A., Barker, L., Kühn, C., Lalonde, S., Buschmann, H., Frommer, W.B., Ward, J.M. Plant Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. A subclass of plant heat shock cognate 70 chaperones carries a motif that facilitates trafficking through plasmodesmata. Aoki, K., Kragler, F., Xoconostle-Cazares, B., Lucas, W.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Cell-to-cell and long-distance trafficking of the green fluorescent protein in the phloem and symplastic unloading of the protein into sink tissues. Imlau, A., Truernit, E., Sauer, N. Plant Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Characterization of the unconventional myosin VIII in plant cells and its localization at the post-cytokinetic cell wall. Reichelt, S., Knight, A.E., Hodge, T.P., Baluska, F., Samaj, J., Volkmann, D., Kendrick-Jones, J. Plant J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. The shoot apical meristem restores its symplasmic organization during chilling-induced release from dormancy. Rinne, P.L., Kaikuranta, P.M., van der Schoot, C. Plant J. (2001) [Pubmed]
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