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Disease relevance of Perimenopause


Psychiatry related information on Perimenopause


High impact information on Perimenopause

  • Estradiol levels remain relatively unchanged or tend to rise with age until the onset of the transition and are usually well preserved until the late perimenopause, presumably in response to the elevated FSH levels [5].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Women with first onset depression during the perimenopause are not distinguished from controls on the basis of basal hormone measures of ovarian estrogens, testosterone, or gonadotropins [6].
  • METHODS: We performed a questionnaire study of women with epilepsy currently in menopause and perimenopause, requesting information regarding the course of their epilepsy and treatment [7].
  • The effect of menopause and perimenopause on the course of epilepsy [7].
  • Decrease in melatonin precedes follicle-stimulating hormone increase during perimenopause [8].

Biological context of Perimenopause


Anatomical context of Perimenopause


Associations of Perimenopause with chemical compounds

  • It is concluded that the appearance of high levels of FSH and LH is characteristic of the perimenopause and often precedes the sustained loss of sex hormone secretion by the ageing ovary [13].
  • These data show that perimenopause either before or during short-term estrogen therapy is associated with enhanced cardiovascular reactivity to caffeine [14].
  • Perimenopause is characterized by decreasing levels of estrogens and progesterone until gonadal secretion comes to a complete halt [15].
  • The pyridinium crosslinks indicated an increased collagen degradation rate already in the perimenopause (PYD, p=0.017; DPD, p=0.054) [16].
  • Changes unique to perimenopause status include sleep, sex difficulties, alkaline phosphatase, phosphorous, and thyroxine [17].

Gene context of Perimenopause


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Perimenopause

  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to obtain preliminary information about the effect of menopause and perimenopause on the course of epilepsy, and to determine whether seizure type, use of hormone-replacement therapy (HRT), or a history of catamenial seizure pattern would influence this course [7].


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  2. Relationships among sexual behavior, hot flashes, and hormone levels in perimenopausal women. McCoy, N., Culter, W., Davidson, J.M. Archives of sexual behavior. (1985) [Pubmed]
  3. DHEA-S levels and depressive symptoms in a cohort of African American and Caucasian women in the late reproductive years. Morrison, M.F., Ten Have, T., Freeman, E.W., Sammel, M.D., Grisso, J.A. Biol. Psychiatry (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. The menstrual cycle in context, I: Affective syndromes associated with reproductive hormonal changes. Hamilton, J.A., Parry, B.L., Blumenthal, S.J. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Hormonal changes in the menopause transition. Burger, H.G., Dudley, E.C., Robertson, D.M., Dennerstein, L. Recent Prog. Horm. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Basal plasma hormone levels in depressed perimenopausal women. Schmidt, P.J., Murphy, J.H., Haq, N., Danaceau, M.A., St Clair, L. Psychoneuroendocrinology (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. The effect of menopause and perimenopause on the course of epilepsy. Harden, C.L., Pulver, M.C., Ravdin, L., Jacobs, A.R. Epilepsia (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Decrease in melatonin precedes follicle-stimulating hormone increase during perimenopause. Vakkuri, O., Kivelä, A., Leppäluoto, J., Valtonen, M., Kauppila, A. Eur. J. Endocrinol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Bone metabolism during the perimenopausal transition: a prospective study. Seifert-Klauss, V., Mueller, J.E., Luppa, P., Probst, R., Wilker, J., Höss, C., Treumann, T., Kastner, C., Ulm, K. Maturitas. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Effects of melatonin in perimenopausal and menopausal women: our personal experience. Bellipanni, G., DI Marzo, F., Blasi, F., DI Marzo, A. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Estrogen-mediated effects on depression and memory formation in females. Shors, T.J., Leuner, B. Journal of affective disorders. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Mood, energy, cognition, and physical complaints: a mind/body approach to symptom management during the climacteric. O'Connell, E. Journal of obstetric, gynecologic, and neonatal nursing : JOGNN / NAACOG. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Pituitary-ovarian function in normal women during the menopausal transition. Metcalf, M.G., Donald, R.A., Livesey, J.H. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) (1981) [Pubmed]
  14. Increased cardiovascular response to caffeine in perimenopausal women before and during estrogen therapy. Del Rio, G., Menozzi, R., Zizzo, G., Avogaro, A., Marrama, P., Velardo, A. Eur. J. Endocrinol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Affective syndrome during perimenopause. Banger, M. Maturitas. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Changes of biochemical bone markers during the menopausal transition. Rosenbrock, H., Seifert-Klauss, V., Kaspar, S., Busch, R., Luppa, P.B. Clin. Chem. Lab. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Longitudinal and cross-sectional analysis of HEALTH WATCH data with a subset of perimenopausal women and matched controls. Peterson, D.D., Schmidt, R.M. J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. A longitudinal study of cognition change during early menopausal transition in a rural community. Fuh, J.L., Wang, S.J., Lee, S.J., Lu, S.R., Juang, K.D. Maturitas. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Managing PMS and perimenopause symptoms. The role of compounded medications. Ahlgrimm, M. Advance for nurse practitioners. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Relationship between adenohypophyseal and steroid hormones and variations in serum and urinary melatonin levels during the ovarian cycle, perimenopause and menopause in healthy women. Fernandez, B., Malde, J.L., Montero, A., Acuña, D. J. Steroid Biochem. (1990) [Pubmed]
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