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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Postpartum Period

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Disease relevance of Postpartum Period


Psychiatry related information on Postpartum Period


High impact information on Postpartum Period

  • The mean postpartum serum free-thyroxine index was 136.6 +/- 11.4 (P less than 0.05 as compared with values before and during pregnancy), and the mean postpartum serum thyrotropin level was 1.4 +/- 0.4 mU per liter (P less than 0.01 as compared with levels during pregnancy), demonstrating a decrease in the thyroxine requirement [10].
  • Furthermore, progesterone may be involved in the premenstrual and postpartum syndromes [11].
  • Prolactin levels and duration of postpartum anoestrus in lactating ewes [12].
  • In contrast, evidence of increased dopamine-receptor sensitivity was observed in the pups if haloperidol was administered to their mothers postpartum during nursing rather than during pregnancy [13].
  • Nonparetic cows showed initially a slight decrease in plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D which was followed by a significant increase during parturition and 2 days postpartum [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of Postpartum Period


Biological context of Postpartum Period

  • Strikingly, however, XOR+/- females, although of healthy appearance and normal fertility, are unable to maintain lactation and their pups die of starvation 2 wk postpartum [20].
  • INTERVENTIONS: At their initial postpartum visit, 443 women selected a nonhormonal form of contraception, 383 received a low-dose, estrogen-progestin combination oral contraceptive (OC), and 78 breast-feeding women received the progestin-only OC [21].
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Parathyroid hormone-related peptide, prolactin, estradiol, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, 24-hydroxyvitamin D, femoral bone mineral density, and bone turnover markers were measured in 115 postpartum women at 2 weeks, 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 12 months, and 18 months postpartum [22].
  • POMC transcripts were present in fetal testis (day 17 of gestation to newborn), could not be detected in prepuberal testis (days 7-8 postpartum), but reappeared in the adult testis [23].
  • Whether this olfactory distinction of mothers' urine before and after birth reflects in part the odortype and hence genotype of the fetus, and not just the state of pregnancy per se, was tested in a second study in which each mother's postpartum urine was mixed either with urine from her own infant or with urine of a different, same-aged infant [24].

Anatomical context of Postpartum Period


Associations of Postpartum Period with chemical compounds

  • The mean postpartum thyroxine dose was decreased to 0.117 +/- 0.011 mg per day (P less than 0.01 as compared with the dose during pregnancy) [10].
  • Maternal plasma CRH levels, which increased progressively during pregnancy, correlated well with both ACTH and cortisol in early labor, delivery, and postpartum samples, and also with cortisol levels in samples before labor [30].
  • Insulin biosynthesis rates were determined in 4-wk-old animals that had been injected with 90 mg/kg of streptozotocin 2 d postpartum [31].
  • The proposed mechanism implies, among other things, that postpartum supplementation with folic acid might prevent excess risk of unfavourable pregnancy outcome in women with short interpregnancy intervals [32].
  • Also, the more rapidly absorbed polyglactin 910 material obviates need for suture removal up to 3 months postpartum for one in ten women sutured [33].

Gene context of Postpartum Period

  • Interestingly, female Ncf1-mutated mice spontaneously developed severe arthritis during the postpartum period [34].
  • During early puerperium of both normal pregnant women and patients, plasma PAI-1 antigen and activity decreased within one day to approximately the levels detected in normal nonpregnant women, while PAI-2 levels remained elevated for over 11 days [35].
  • Mrp2 mRNA was stable in pregnancy and postpartum, whereas Mrp2 protein expression decreased significantly in pregnancy, but returned to control levels postpartum [36].
  • IL-10 and sTNFR I levels were significantly higher during pregnancy and postpartum in SLE patients with active disease (P=0.03 and P=0.01, respectively) [37].
  • Cryptdin, CRS1C, and CRS4C mRNAs are transcribed from separate genes, occur at equivalent abundance in small intestine, and appear in the small bowel in concert during the 2nd and 3rd weeks postpartum [38].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Postpartum Period

  • Metabolic clearance rates (MCR) of arginine vasopressin (AVP) were measured serially in five women starting before conception, during gestational weeks 7-8 (early), 22-24 (middle), and 36-38 (late pregnancy), and again 10-12 wk postpartum [39].
  • Each normal individual was subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test in midpregnancy, and all subjects were investigated late in pregnancy and again four to six weeks postpartum [40].
  • Case-control study of pregnant SLE patients and nonpregnant SLE controls, using logistic regression analyses to assess the role of prepregnancy disease activity as a prognostic factor for flare during pregnancy or the postpartum followup period [41].
  • Glucose intolerance was detected in 22 (31%) of the HELLP patients, 17 of them had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and 5 had diabetes, whereas only 4 subjects (6.5%) with IGT at postpartum were found in the control group (P < 0.01) [42].
  • Our results suggest that, for postpartum uterine pain, analgesia with anirolac, 50 or 100 mg, is equivalent to that with naproxen, 550 mg [43].


  1. Hyperammonemia in women with a mutation at the ornithine carbamoyltransferase locus. A cause of postpartum coma. Arn, P.H., Hauser, E.R., Thomas, G.H., Herman, G., Hess, D., Brusilow, S.W. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Suppression of prolactin in pigs by Escherichia coli endotoxin. Smith, B.B., Wagner, W.C. Science (1984) [Pubmed]
  3. Sellar enlargement with hyperprolactinemia and a Rathke's pouch cyst. Trokoudes, K.M., Walfish, P.G., Holgate, R.C., Pritzker, K.P., Schwartz, M.L., Kovacs, K. JAMA (1978) [Pubmed]
  4. Interactions between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the female reproductive system: clinical implications. Chrousos, G.P., Torpy, D.J., Gold, P.W. Ann. Intern. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Myoinositol and phosphatidylinositol metabolism in synaptosomes from galactose-fed rats. Warfield, A.S., Segal, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1978) [Pubmed]
  6. Onset and persistence of postpartum depression in an inner-city maternal health clinic system. Yonkers, K.A., Ramin, S.M., Rush, A.J., Navarrete, C.A., Carmody, T., March, D., Heartwell, S.F., Leveno, K.J. The American journal of psychiatry. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Interacting effects of oxazepam in late pregnancy and fostering procedure on mouse maternal behavior. Laviola, G., Bignami, G., Alleva, E. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews. (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. Prevention of postpartum episodes in women with bipolar disorder. Wisner, K.L., Hanusa, B.H., Peindl, K.S., Perel, J.M. Biol. Psychiatry (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone suppression during the postpartum period: implications for the increase in psychiatric manifestations at this time. Magiakou, M.A., Mastorakos, G., Rabin, D., Dubbert, B., Gold, P.W., Chrousos, G.P. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Increased need for thyroxine during pregnancy in women with primary hypothyroidism. Mandel, S.J., Larsen, P.R., Seely, E.W., Brent, G.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Role of corticosteroid-binding globulin in interaction of corticosterone with uterine and brain progesterone receptors. Al-Khouri, H., Greenstein, B.D. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
  12. Prolactin levels and duration of postpartum anoestrus in lactating ewes. Kann, G., Martinet, J. Nature (1975) [Pubmed]
  13. Enduring changes in dopamine receptor cells of pups from drug administration to pregnant and nursing rats. Rosengarten, H., Friedhoff, A.J. Science (1979) [Pubmed]
  14. Adequate response of plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D to parturition in paretic (milk fever) dairy cows. Horst, R.L., Eisman, J.A., Jorgensen, N.A., DeLuca, H.F. Science (1977) [Pubmed]
  15. Nephrosclerosis postpartum and in women taking oral contraceptives. Schoolwerth, A.C., Sandler, R.S., Klahr, S., Kissane, J.M. Arch. Intern. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  16. Technetium Tc 99m uptake in postpartum thyrotoxicosis. Lervang, H.H., Askaa, S., Ostergaard Kristensen, H.P. Arch. Intern. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  17. Role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis in puerperal infertility. Andreassen, B., Tyson, J.E. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1976) [Pubmed]
  18. Effect of administration of thyroxine on the risk of postpartum recurrence of hyperthyroid Graves' disease. Hashizume, K., Ichikawa, K., Nishii, Y., Kobayashi, M., Sakurai, A., Miyamoto, T., Suzuki, S., Takeda, T. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Maternal administration of superoxide dismutase and catalase in phenytoin teratogenicity. Winn, L.M., Wells, P.G. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. The housekeeping gene xanthine oxidoreductase is necessary for milk fat droplet enveloping and secretion: gene sharing in the lactating mammary gland. Vorbach, C., Scriven, A., Capecchi, M.R. Genes Dev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Contraception and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Latina women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus. Kjos, S.L., Peters, R.K., Xiang, A., Thomas, D., Schaefer, U., Buchanan, T.A. JAMA (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Elevated parathyroid hormone-related peptide associated with lactation and bone density loss. Sowers, M.F., Hollis, B.W., Shapiro, B., Randolph, J., Janney, C.A., Zhang, D., Schork, A., Crutchfield, M., Stanczyk, F., Russell-Aulet, M. JAMA (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Expression of the proopiomelanocortin gene is developmentally regulated and affected by germ cells in the male mouse reproductive system. Gizang-Ginsberg, E., Wolgemuth, D.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  24. Evidence suggesting that the odortypes of pregnant women are a compound of maternal and fetal odortypes. Beauchamp, G.K., Katahira, K., Yamazaki, K., Mennella, J.A., Bard, J., Boyse, E.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D in pregnant Asian women and their babies. Heckmatt, J.Z., Peacock, M., Davies, A.E., McMurray, J., Isherwood, D.M. Lancet (1979) [Pubmed]
  26. The corpus luteum of the guinea pig. III. Cytochemical studies on the Golgi complex and GERL during normal postpartum regression of luteal cells, emphasizing the origin of lysosomes and autophagic vacuoles. Paavola, L.G. J. Cell Biol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  27. Galanin regulates prolactin release and lactotroph proliferation. Wynick, D., Small, C.J., Bacon, A., Holmes, F.E., Norman, M., Ormandy, C.J., Kilic, E., Kerr, N.C., Ghatei, M., Talamantes, F., Bloom, S.R., Pachnis, V. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Expression of the Huntington's disease gene is regulated in astrocytes in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus of postpartum rats. Hebb, M.O., Denovan-Wright, E.M., Robertson, H.A. FASEB J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. Collagenase 2 (MMP-8) expression in murine tissue-remodeling processes. Analysis of its potential role in postpartum involution of the uterus. Balbín, M., Fueyo, A., Knäuper, V., Pendás, A.M., López, J.M., Jiménez, M.G., Murphy, G., López-Otín, C. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  30. Placental corticotropin-releasing hormone may be a stimulator of maternal pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion in humans. Sasaki, A., Shinkawa, O., Yoshinaga, K. J. Clin. Invest. (1989) [Pubmed]
  31. An in vivo analysis of pancreatic protein and insulin biosynthesis in a rat model for non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Permutt, M.A., Kakita, K., Malinas, P., Karl, I., Bonner-Weir, S., Weir, G., Giddings, S.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1984) [Pubmed]
  32. Short interpregnancy intervals and unfavourable pregnancy outcome: role of folate depletion. Smits, L.J., Essed, G.G. Lancet (2001) [Pubmed]
  33. Continuous versus interrupted perineal repair with standard or rapidly absorbed sutures after spontaneous vaginal birth: a randomised controlled trial. Kettle, C., Hills, R.K., Jones, P., Darby, L., Gray, R., Johanson, R. Lancet (2002) [Pubmed]
  34. Enhanced autoimmunity, arthritis, and encephalomyelitis in mice with a reduced oxidative burst due to a mutation in the Ncf1 gene. Hultqvist, M., Olofsson, P., Holmberg, J., Bäckström, B.T., Tordsson, J., Holmdahl, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. Changes in the plasma levels of type 1 and type 2 plasminogen activator inhibitors in normal pregnancy and in patients with severe preeclampsia. Estellés, A., Gilabert, J., Aznar, J., Loskutoff, D.J., Schleef, R.R. Blood (1989) [Pubmed]
  36. Differential regulation of hepatic bile salt and organic anion transporters in pregnant and postpartum rats and the role of prolactin. Cao, J., Huang, L., Liu, Y., Hoffman, T., Stieger, B., Meier, P.J., Vore, M. Hepatology (2001) [Pubmed]
  37. Pregnancy, cytokines, and disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus. Doria, A., Ghirardello, A., Iaccarino, L., Zampieri, S., Punzi, L., Tarricone, E., Ruffatti, A., Sulli, A., Sarzi-Puttini, P.C., Gambari, P.F., Cutolo, M. Arthritis Rheum. (2004) [Pubmed]
  38. A novel mouse gene family coding for cationic, cysteine-rich peptides. Regulation in small intestine and cells of myeloid origin. Ouellette, A.J., Lualdi, J.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  39. Changes in the metabolic clearance of vasopressin and in plasma vasopressinase throughout human pregnancy. Davison, J.M., Sheills, E.A., Barron, W.M., Robinson, A.G., Lindheimer, M.D. J. Clin. Invest. (1989) [Pubmed]
  40. Plasma glucagon and the insulin:glucagon ratio in gestational diabetes. Kuhl, C., Holst, J.J. Diabetes (1976) [Pubmed]
  41. Lupus and pregnancy studies. Urowitz, M.B., Gladman, D.D., Farewell, V.T., Stewart, J., McDonald, J. Arthritis Rheum. (1993) [Pubmed]
  42. Association of HELLP syndrome with autoimmune antibodies and glucose intolerance. Weitgasser, R., Spitzer, D., Kartnig, I., Zajc, M., Staudach, A., Sandhofer, F. Diabetes Care (2000) [Pubmed]
  43. Anirolac vs. naproxen for postpartum uterine pain. Bloomfield, S.S., Cissell, G.B., Peters, N.M., Mitchell, J., Nelson, E.D., Barden, T.P. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1987) [Pubmed]
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