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MeSH Review

Hormone Replacement Therapy

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Disease relevance of Hormone Replacement Therapy


Psychiatry related information on Hormone Replacement Therapy


High impact information on Hormone Replacement Therapy


Chemical compound and disease context of Hormone Replacement Therapy


Biological context of Hormone Replacement Therapy


Anatomical context of Hormone Replacement Therapy


Associations of Hormone Replacement Therapy with chemical compounds

  • Using cross-sectional data, we classified the women into four groups according to their use of hormone-replacement therapy: current users of estrogen alone, current users of estrogen with progestin, nonusers who had formerly used these hormones, nonusers who had never used them [12].
  • OBJECTIVE: To identify the effects of raloxifene on markers of cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women, and to compare them with those induced by hormone replacement therapy (HRT) [31].
  • This effect was seen as early as 12 weeks (median reduction in CRP with pravastatin, 14.7%; P<.001) and was present among all prespecified subgroups according to sex, age, smoking status, body mass index, baseline lipid levels, presence of diabetes, and use of aspirin or hormone replacement therapy [32].
  • Susceptibility to the breast cancer-enhancing effect of alcohol may also be affected by other dietary factors (such as low folate intake), lifestyle habits (such as use of hormone replacement therapy), or biological characteristics (such as tumor hormone receptor status) [33].
  • Monkeys were ovariectomized and divided randomly into two groups, one receiving 17 beta-estradiol and cyclic progesterone treatment (n = 9) and ovariectomized controls receiving no hormone replacement therapy (n = 8) [34].

Gene context of Hormone Replacement Therapy


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Hormone Replacement Therapy


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  2. Hormone replacement therapy, prothrombotic mutations, and the risk of incident nonfatal myocardial infarction in postmenopausal women. Psaty, B.M., Smith, N.L., Lemaitre, R.N., Vos, H.L., Heckbert, S.R., LaCroix, A.Z., Rosendaal, F.R. JAMA (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Effects of hormone replacement therapy and antioxidant vitamin supplements on coronary atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. Waters, D.D., Alderman, E.L., Hsia, J., Howard, B.V., Cobb, F.R., Rogers, W.J., Ouyang, P., Thompson, P., Tardif, J.C., Higginson, L., Bittner, V., Steffes, M., Gordon, D.J., Proschan, M., Younes, N., Verter, J.I. JAMA (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Combined hormone replacement therapy does not protect women against the age-related decline in endothelium-dependent vasomotor function. Sorensen, K.E., Dorup, I., Hermann, A.P., Mosekilde, L. Circulation (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Progesterone inhibits estrogen-induced cyclin D1 and cdk4 nuclear translocation, cyclin E- and cyclin A-cdk2 kinase activation, and cell proliferation in uterine epithelial cells in mice. Tong, W., Pollard, J.W. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Effect of short-term hormone replacement therapy on breast cancer risk reduction after bilateral prophylactic oophorectomy in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: the PROSE Study Group. Rebbeck, T.R., Friebel, T., Wagner, T., Lynch, H.T., Garber, J.E., Daly, M.B., Isaacs, C., Olopade, O.I., Neuhausen, S.L., van 't Veer, L., Eeles, R., Evans, D.G., Tomlinson, G., Matloff, E., Narod, S.A., Eisen, A., Domchek, S., Armstrong, K., Weber, B.L. J. Clin. Oncol. (2005) [Pubmed]
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  8. Heme iron, zinc and upper digestive tract cancer: the Iowa Women's Health Study. Lee, D.H., Anderson, K.E., Folsom, A.R., Jacobs, D.R. Int. J. Cancer (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Estrogen replacement therapy in patients with early breast cancer. Natrajan, P.K., Gambrell, R.D. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Risk factors for goiter in a previously iodine-deficient region. Völzke, H., Schwahn, C., Kohlmann, T., Kramer, A., Robinson, D.M., John, U., Meng, W. Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Effects of hormone-replacement therapy on fibrinolysis in postmenopausal women. Koh, K.K., Mincemoyer, R., Bui, M.N., Csako, G., Pucino, F., Guetta, V., Waclawiw, M., Cannon, R.O. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Association of hormone-replacement therapy with various cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study Investigators. Nabulsi, A.A., Folsom, A.R., White, A., Patsch, W., Heiss, G., Wu, K.K., Szklo, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. In vivo imaging of transcriptionally active estrogen receptors. Ciana, P., Raviscioni, M., Mussi, P., Vegeto, E., Que, I., Parker, M.G., Lowik, C., Maggi, A. Nat. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Meta-analyses of therapies for postmenopausal osteoporosis. IX: Summary of meta-analyses of therapies for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Cranney, A., Guyatt, G., Griffith, L., Wells, G., Tugwell, P., Rosen, C. Endocr. Rev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Combination therapy with hormone replacement and alendronate for prevention of bone loss in elderly women: a randomized controlled trial. Greenspan, S.L., Resnick, N.M., Parker, R.A. JAMA (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Risk of mortality by histologic type of breast cancer among women aged 50 to 79 years. Li, C.I., Moe, R.E., Daling, J.R. Arch. Intern. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Prevention of postmenopausal bone loss using tibolone or conventional peroral or transdermal hormone replacement therapy with 17beta-estradiol and dydrogesterone. Lippuner, K., Haenggi, W., Birkhaeuser, M.H., Casez, J.P., Jaeger, P. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Individualizing therapy to prevent long-term consequences of estrogen deficiency in postmenopausal women. Col, N.F., Pauker, S.G., Goldberg, R.J., Eckman, M.H., Orr, R.K., Ross, E.M., Wong, J.B. Arch. Intern. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Pathophysiology and recent advances in the management of renal osteodystrophy. Elder, G. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Risk factors for cerebral hemorrhage in the era of well-controlled hypertension. Melbourne Risk Factor Study (MERFS) Group. Thrift, A.G., McNeil, J.J., Forbes, A., Donnan, G.A. Stroke (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Randomised controlled study of effect of parathyroid hormone on vertebral-bone mass and fracture incidence among postmenopausal women on oestrogen with osteoporosis. Lindsay, R., Nieves, J., Formica, C., Henneman, E., Woelfert, L., Shen, V., Dempster, D., Cosman, F. Lancet (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Prospective randomized study of the effect of "add-back" hormone replacement on vascular function during treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists. Yim, S.F., Lau, T.K., Sahota, D.S., Chung, T.K., Chang, A.M., Haines, C.J. Circulation (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. Effect of long-term hormone replacement therapy on atherosclerosis progression in postmenopausal women relates to functional apolipoprotein e genotype. Lehtimäki, T., Dastidar, P., Jokela, H., Koivula, T., Lehtinen, S., Ehnholm, C., Punnonen, R. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Estrogen replacement therapy continuously combined with four different dosages of dydrogesterone: effect on calcium and lipid metabolism. Voetberg, G.A., Netelenbos, J.C., Kenemans, P., Peters-Muller, E.R., van de Weijer, P.H. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Evidence that parenteral testosterone therapy may improve endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilation in postmenopausal women already receiving estrogen. Worboys, S., Kotsopoulos, D., Teede, H., McGrath, B., Davis, S.R. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Hormone replacement therapy and distensibility of carotid arteries in postmenopausal women: a randomized, controlled trial. Angerer, P., Kothny, W., Störk, S., von Schacky, C. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. Cell adhesion molecules in relation to simvastatin and hormone replacement therapy in coronary artery disease. Sbarouni, E., Kroupis, C., Kyriakides, Z.S., Koniavitou, K., Kremastinos, D.T. Eur. Heart J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Combination treatment with estrogen and calcitriol in the prevention of age-related bone loss. Gallagher, J.C., Fowler, S.E., Detter, J.R., Sherman, S.S. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2001) [Pubmed]
  29. Primary medical therapy of micro- and macroprolactinomas in men. Pinzone, J.J., Katznelson, L., Danila, D.C., Pauler, D.K., Miller, C.S., Klibanski, A. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. The combination of a novel selective estrogen receptor modulator with an estrogen protects the mammary gland and uterus in a rodent model: the future of postmenopausal women's health? Labrie, F., El-Alfy, M., Berger, L., Labrie, C., Martel, C., Bélanger, A., Candas, B., Pelletier, G. Endocrinology (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Effects of raloxifene on serum lipids and coagulation factors in healthy postmenopausal women. Walsh, B.W., Kuller, L.H., Wild, R.A., Paul, S., Farmer, M., Lawrence, J.B., Shah, A.S., Anderson, P.W. JAMA (1998) [Pubmed]
  32. Effect of statin therapy on C-reactive protein levels: the pravastatin inflammation/CRP evaluation (PRINCE): a randomized trial and cohort study. Albert, M.A., Danielson, E., Rifai, N., Ridker, P.M. JAMA (2001) [Pubmed]
  33. Alcohol and breast cancer: review of epidemiologic and experimental evidence and potential mechanisms. Singletary, K.W., Gapstur, S.M. JAMA (2001) [Pubmed]
  34. Estrogen and progesterone replacement therapy reduces low density lipoprotein accumulation in the coronary arteries of surgically postmenopausal cynomolgus monkeys. Wagner, J.D., Clarkson, T.B., St Clair, R.W., Schwenke, D.C., Shively, C.A., Adams, M.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1991) [Pubmed]
  35. Estrogen receptor-alpha mediates the brain antiinflammatory activity of estradiol. Vegeto, E., Belcredito, S., Etteri, S., Ghisletti, S., Brusadelli, A., Meda, C., Krust, A., Dupont, S., Ciana, P., Chambon, P., Maggi, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  36. Changes in serum receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand, osteoprotegerin, and interleukin-6 levels in patients with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis treated with human parathyroid hormone (1-34). Buxton, E.C., Yao, W., Lane, N.E. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2004) [Pubmed]
  37. Effects of hormone replacement therapy and hepatic lipase polymorphism on serum lipid profiles in postmenopausal Japanese women. Somekawa, Y., Umeki, H., Kobayashi, K., Tomura, S., Aso, T., Hamaguchi, H. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2002) [Pubmed]
  38. Endometrial and myometrial expression of nitric oxide synthase isoforms in pre- and postmenopausal women. Khorram, O., Garthwaite, M., Magness, R.R. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1999) [Pubmed]
  39. Proliferation of endothelial and tumor epithelial cells by progestin-induced vascular endothelial growth factor from human breast cancer cells: paracrine and autocrine effects. Liang, Y., Hyder, S.M. Endocrinology (2005) [Pubmed]
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  41. Estrogens, lipoproteins, and cardiovascular risk factors: an update following the randomized placebo-controlled trials of hormone-replacement therapy. Seed, M., Knopp, R.H. Curr. Opin. Lipidol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  42. Electrophysiological and cellular effects of estrogen on neuronal function. Woolley, C.S. Critical reviews in neurobiology. (1999) [Pubmed]
  43. Hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women: breast tissue perfusion determined with MR imaging--initial observations. Delille, J.P., Slanetz, P.J., Yeh, E.D., Kopans, D.B., Halpern, E.F., Garrido, L. Radiology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  44. Serum CrossLaps One Step ELISA. First application of monoclonal antibodies for measurement in serum of bone-related degradation products from C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen. Rosenquist, C., Fledelius, C., Christgau, S., Pedersen, B.J., Bonde, M., Qvist, P., Christiansen, C. Clin. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
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