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MeSH Review

Hot Flashes

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Disease relevance of Hot Flashes


Psychiatry related information on Hot Flashes


High impact information on Hot Flashes


Chemical compound and disease context of Hot Flashes

  • Pilot trials have suggested that the progestational agent megestrol acetate can ameliorate hot flashes in both groups of patients [13].
  • RESULTS: Patients in the placebo and treatment groups were similar in age, duration of tamoxifen use, reported frequency and duration of hot flashes at baseline, and dropout rates [1].
  • CONCLUSION: Better means are needed to alleviate hot flashes among patients in whom estrogen therapy is contraindicated [14].
  • PURPOSE: Hot flashes can be a prominent clinical problem for breast cancer survivors and men who undergo androgen-deprivation therapy [15].
  • Hot flashes (75% v 46%) and tumor flare (16% v 3%) were more common with goserelin [16].

Biological context of Hot Flashes

  • CONCLUSION: In tamoxifen-treated patients, women with the CYP2D6 *4/*4 genotype tend to have a higher risk of disease relapse and a lower incidence of hot flashes, which is consistent with our previous observation that CYP2D6 is responsible for the metabolic activation of tamoxifen to endoxifen [17].
  • Results showed that women taking ERT were more likely to know that decreased estrogen levels lead to osteoporosis, to perceive that menopause is a medical condition, to believe that natural approaches to menopause are less preferable, to be seeing a gynecologist for care, and to believe that women should take ERT for hot flashes [18].
  • CONCLUSION(S): E(2) ameliorates hot flashes by raising the core body temperature sweating threshold, but does not affect core temperature fluctuations or plasma 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol [19].
  • The mechanism underlying the hot flashes observed in menopausal women may also involve, in part, the up-regulation of CGRP receptors following ovarian hormone deficiency [20].
  • This withdrawal of estrogen causes physiological changes, some changes which are short-term and obvious (i.e., hot flashes, night sweats) and other changes that are more subtle and lead to long-term problems (i.e., loss of bone density, increased risk of fracture) [21].

Anatomical context of Hot Flashes


Gene context of Hot Flashes

  • These results suggest that CGRP is involved in the mechanism underlying hot flashes in men [25].
  • Future drug development efforts should focus on developing superior SERMs that have a greater efficacy against ER-positive tumors and do not cause hot flashes or thromboembolism, and explore combination strategies to simultaneously target hormone-dependent as well as hormone-independent breast cancer [26].
  • To determine whether the extent of estrogen deficiency influences the occurrence of the disturbance, the authors measured the levels of estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and the percent and total non-SHBG-bound E2 in 24 women with frequent hot flashes and 24 women who had never experienced the symptom [27].
  • Changes in neurotensin-like immunoreactivity during menopausal hot flashes [28].
  • Treatment with bromocriptine was associated with normalization of plasma PRL levels, elevation of plasma gonadotropin levels, and the onset of menopausal hot flashes in both patients [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Hot Flashes


  1. Oral clonidine in postmenopausal patients with breast cancer experiencing tamoxifen-induced hot flashes: a University of Rochester Cancer Center Community Clinical Oncology Program study. Pandya, K.J., Raubertas, R.F., Flynn, P.J., Hynes, H.E., Rosenbluth, R.J., Kirshner, J.J., Pierce, H.I., Dragalin, V., Morrow, G.R. Ann. Intern. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Clinical pharmacokinetics of toremifene. Taras, T.L., Wurz, G.T., Linares, G.R., DeGregorio, M.W. Clinical pharmacokinetics. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Pilot evaluation of venlafaxine for the treatment of hot flashes in men undergoing androgen ablation therapy for prostate cancer. Quella, S.K., Loprinzi, C.L., Sloan, J., Novotny, P., Perez, E.A., Burch, P.A., Antolak, S.J., Pisansky, T.M. J. Urol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Cisplatin versus cisplatin plus D-Trp-6-LHRH in the treatment of ovarian cancer: a pilot trial to investigate the effect of the addition of a GnRH analogue to cisplatin. Falkson, C.I., Falkson, H.C., Falkson, G. Oncology (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Bicalutamide monotherapy compared with castration in patients with nonmetastatic locally advanced prostate cancer: 6.3 years of followup. Iversen, P., Tyrrell, C.J., Kaisary, A.V., Anderson, J.B., Van Poppel, H., Tammela, T.L., Chamberlain, M., Carroll, K., Melezinek, I. J. Urol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Hot flashes are associated with psychological symptoms of anxiety and depression in peri- and post- but not premenopausal women. Juang, K.D., Wang, S.J., Lu, S.R., Lee, S.J., Fuh, J.L. Maturitas. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Paroxetine treatment of mood disorders in women: premenstrual dysphoric disorder and hot flashes. Yonkers, K.A. Psychopharmacology bulletin. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Transdermal clonidine: therapeutic considerations. Sica, D.A., Grubbs, R. Journal of clinical hypertension (Greenwich, Conn.) (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Effects of raloxifene on bone mineral density, serum cholesterol concentrations, and uterine endometrium in postmenopausal women. Delmas, P.D., Bjarnason, N.H., Mitlak, B.H., Ravoux, A.C., Shah, A.S., Huster, W.J., Draper, M., Christiansen, C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Megestrol acetate for the prevention of hot flashes. Hughes-Davies, T.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Paroxetine controlled release in the treatment of menopausal hot flashes: a randomized controlled trial. Stearns, V., Beebe, K.L., Iyengar, M., Dube, E. JAMA (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Venlafaxine in management of hot flashes in survivors of breast cancer: a randomised controlled trial. Loprinzi, C.L., Kugler, J.W., Sloan, J.A., Mailliard, J.A., LaVasseur, B.I., Barton, D.L., Novotny, P.J., Dakhil, S.R., Rodger, K., Rummans, T.A., Christensen, B.J. Lancet (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Megestrol acetate for the prevention of hot flashes. Loprinzi, C.L., Michalak, J.C., Quella, S.K., O'Fallon, J.R., Hatfield, A.K., Nelimark, R.A., Dose, A.M., Fischer, T., Johnson, C., Klatt, N.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Transdermal clonidine for ameliorating tamoxifen-induced hot flashes. Goldberg, R.M., Loprinzi, C.L., O'Fallon, J.R., Veeder, M.H., Miser, A.W., Mailliard, J.A., Michalak, J.C., Dose, A.M., Rowland, K.M., Burnham, N.L. J. Clin. Oncol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Pilot evaluation of venlafaxine hydrochloride for the therapy of hot flashes in cancer survivors. Loprinzi, C.L., Pisansky, T.M., Fonseca, R., Sloan, J.A., Zahasky, K.M., Quella, S.K., Novotny, P.J., Rummans, T.A., Dumesic, D.A., Perez, E.A. J. Clin. Oncol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Multicenter randomized clinical trial of goserelin versus surgical ovariectomy in premenopausal patients with receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer: an intergroup study. Taylor, C.W., Green, S., Dalton, W.S., Martino, S., Rector, D., Ingle, J.N., Robert, N.J., Budd, G.T., Paradelo, J.C., Natale, R.B., Bearden, J.D., Mailliard, J.A., Osborne, C.K. J. Clin. Oncol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Pharmacogenetics of tamoxifen biotransformation is associated with clinical outcomes of efficacy and hot flashes. Goetz, M.P., Rae, J.M., Suman, V.J., Safgren, S.L., Ames, M.M., Visscher, D.W., Reynolds, C., Couch, F.J., Lingle, W.L., Flockhart, D.A., Desta, Z., Perez, E.A., Ingle, J.N. J. Clin. Oncol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Estrogen replacement therapy. A survey of women's knowledge and attitudes. Ferguson, K.J., Hoegh, C., Johnson, S. Arch. Intern. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  19. Estrogen raises the sweating threshold in postmenopausal women with hot flashes. Freedman, R.R., Blacker, C.M. Fertil. Steril. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Up-regulation of calcitonin gene-related peptide receptors underlying elevation of skin temperature in ovariectomized rats. Noguchi, M., Ikarashi, Y., Yuzurihara, M., Mizoguchi, K., Kurauchi, K., Chen, J.T., Ishige, A. J. Endocrinol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Counseling patients who elect to discontinue hormone therapy. Simon, J.A., Mack, C.J. International journal of fertility and women's medicine. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Effects of ospemifene, a novel SERM, on hormones, genital tract, climacteric symptoms, and quality of life in postmenopausal women: a double-blind, randomized trial. Rutanen, E.M., Heikkinen, J., Halonen, K., Komi, J., Lammintausta, R., Ylikorkala, O. Menopause (New York, N.Y.) (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Black cohosh acts as a mixed competitive ligand and partial agonist of the serotonin receptor. Burdette, J.E., Liu, J., Chen, S.N., Fabricant, D.S., Piersen, C.E., Barker, E.L., Pezzuto, J.M., Mesecar, A., Van Breemen, R.B., Farnsworth, N.R., Bolton, J.L. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Stellate ganglion blockade provides relief from menopausal hot flashes: a case report series. Lipov, E., Lipov, S., Stark, J.T. Journal of women's health (2002) (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Involvement of calcitonin gene-related peptide in elevation of skin temperature in castrated male rats. Yuzurihara, M., Ikarashi, Y., Noguchi, M., Kase, Y., Takeda, S., Aburada, M. Urology (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Antiestrogens--tamoxifen, SERMs and beyond. Dhingra, K. Investigational new drugs. (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Estrogen levels in postmenopausal women with hot flashes. Erlik, Y., Meldrum, D.R., Judd, H.L. Obstetrics and gynecology. (1982) [Pubmed]
  28. Changes in neurotensin-like immunoreactivity during menopausal hot flashes. Kronenberg, F., Carraway, R.E. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1985) [Pubmed]
  29. Pathological hyperprolactinemia suppresses hot flashes in menopausal women. Scoccia, B., Schneider, A.B., Marut, E.L., Scommegna, A. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1988) [Pubmed]
  30. Treatment of hot flashes with transdermal estradiol administration. Steingold, K.A., Laufer, L., Chetkowski, R.J., DeFazio, J.D., Matt, D.W., Meldrum, D.R., Judd, H.L. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1985) [Pubmed]
  31. Parenteral medroxyprogesterone for the management of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone induced hot flashes in men with advanced prostate cancer. Langenstroer, P., Kramer, B., Cutting, B., Amling, C., Poultan, T., Lance, R., Thrasher, J.B. J. Urol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. A short study in the treatment of hot flashes with buccal administration of 17-beta estradiol. Gass, M.S., Rebar, R.W., Cuffie-Jackson, C., Cedars, M.I., Lobo, R.A., Shoupe, D., Judd, H.L., Buyalos, R.P., Clisham, P.R. Maturitas. (2004) [Pubmed]
  33. Hot flashes revisited: pharmacological and herbal options for hot flashes management. What does the evidence tell us? Haimov-Kochman, R., Hochner-Celnikier, D. Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica. (2005) [Pubmed]
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