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MeSH Review

Sex Characteristics

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Disease relevance of Sex Characteristics


Psychiatry related information on Sex Characteristics


High impact information on Sex Characteristics


Chemical compound and disease context of Sex Characteristics

  • A dose-response study of progestin receptor induction in the medial preoptic nucleus (mPON), arcuate-median eminence region (ARC-ME), and VMN of male and female rats indicated a sex difference in cytosol progestin binding in the VMN at all EB doses tested (2, 8, 40, or 200 micrograms/kg body weight) [16].
  • Thus, the present study showed that the inductions of urinary bladder carcinomas by uracil, a nongenotoxic compound, in rats and mice showed sex differences and were related to the presence of calculi in the urinary bladder [17].
  • Since SBP2 has been described as the major target for acetaminophen in mouse liver cytosol, these findings are discussed with respect to their possible relevance for sex differences in acetaminophen-mediated toxicity, which have been described in a variety of mammals including mice and rats [18].
  • These findings with PCP and monkeys are consistent with vertical upward shifts of cocaine dose-response functions in previous escalation studies in male rats and reports of sex differences (F>M) during several other phases of drug abuse [19].
  • Although oxidation of uroporphyrinogen I to uroporphyrin I by hepatic microsomes from rats pretreated with porphyrogenic regimes of HCB and PCBs was induced, there was no correlation with the in vivo sex difference in porphyria development [20].

Biological context of Sex Characteristics


Anatomical context of Sex Characteristics


Associations of Sex Characteristics with chemical compounds

  • Sex difference in ontogenesis of circadian adrenocortical rhythm in cortisone-primed rats [28].
  • Sex differences in regional cerebral glucose metabolism during a resting state [29].
  • Sex differences in serotonin 1 receptor binding in rat brain [30].
  • Profound sex differences are found in the volumes of specific nuclei, and the frequencies and types of synapses, in estradiol-concentrating brain regions [31].
  • However, there are a number of observations that are not explainable by the 'androgen theory of sexual differentiation'. Results obtained from cultures of embryonic rat brain tissue appear to indicate that dopaminergic neurons may develop morphological and functional sex differences in the absence of sex steroids [32].

Gene context of Sex Characteristics

  • This study provides further evidence for the hypothesis that the DISC1 gene is involved in the aetiology of schizophrenia, and implies a putative sex difference for the effect of the gene [33].
  • Despite well documented sex differences in serum hPRL levels, there were no significant differences in the levels of hPRLBP found in the sera of normal adult males and females (15.3 +/- 1.3 ng/ml versus 13.4 +/- 0.8 ng/ml, respectively (mean +/- S.E.)) [34].
  • The greater effect of diabetes on CAC in women than in men, i.e., the loss of the sex difference in CAC, was independent of CETP and PLTP activity and CET [35].
  • We describe here a sex difference in endothelin action in hepatocytes because, in female rats, 80% of the ET receptors are of ETB type and, accordingly, activation of glycogenolysis is an ETB-mediated process (EC50 = 0.03 pM) [36].
  • Sex differences in dopamine receptors and their relevance to ADHD [37].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Sex Characteristics


  1. Cardiac actions of erythromycin: influence of female sex. Drici, M.D., Knollmann, B.C., Wang, W.X., Woosley, R.L. JAMA (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Age at diagnosis and transmission of invasive melanoma in 23 families with cutaneous malignant melanoma/dysplastic nevi. Goldstein, A.M., Fraser, M.C., Clark, W.H., Tucker, M.A. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Lack of sex difference in CD4 to HIV-1 RNA viral load ratio. Moore, R.D., Cheever, L., Keruly, J.C., Chaisson, R.E. Lancet (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Mitral valve prolapse. Devereux, R.B., Perloff, J.K., Reichek, N., Josephson, M.E. Circulation (1976) [Pubmed]
  5. Sex difference in presynaptic adrenergic inhibition of norepinephrine release during normoxia and ischemia in the rat heart. Du, X.J., Dart, A.M., Riemersma, R.A., Oliver, M.F. Circ. Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Sex and estrogen influence drug abuse. Carroll, M.E., Lynch, W.J., Roth, M.E., Morgan, A.D., Cosgrove, K.P. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Sex differences in the central nervous system actions of ethanol. Devaud, L.L., Alele, P., Ritu, C. Critical reviews in neurobiology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Male-to-female transsexuals have female neuron numbers in a limbic nucleus. Kruijver, F.P., Zhou, J.N., Pool, C.W., Hofman, M.A., Gooren, L.J., Swaab, D.F. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Sex difference in the response of melanin-concentrating hormone neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area to glucose, as revealed by the expression of phosphorylated cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate response element-binding protein. Mogi, K., Funabashi, T., Mitsushima, D., Hagiwara, H., Kimura, F. Endocrinology (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. A sex difference and no effect of ApoE type on the amount of cytoskeletal alterations in the nucleus basalis of Meynert in Alzheimer's disease. Salehi, A., Gonzalez Martinez, V., Swaab, D.F. Neurobiol. Aging (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Sex differences in plasma homovanillic acid in acute psychosis. Bowers, M.B., Swigar, M.E., Jatlow, P.I. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  12. Maternal investment. Sex differences in avian yolk hormone levels. Petrie, M., Schwabl, H., Brande-Lavridsen, N., Burke, T. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Gonadal steroid induction of structural sex differences in the central nervous system. Arnold, A.P., Gorski, R.A. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (1984) [Pubmed]
  14. Sex differences in rat brain oestrogen and progestin receptors. Rainbow, T.C., Parsons, B., McEwen, B.S. Nature (1982) [Pubmed]
  15. Sex difference in response to alphaxalone anaesthesia may be oestrogen dependent. Fink, G., Sarkar, D.K., Dow, R.C., Dick, H., Borthwick, N., Malnick, S., Twine, M. Nature (1982) [Pubmed]
  16. Regional sex differences in progestin receptor induction in the rat hypothalamus: effects of various doses of estradiol benzoate. Brown, T.J., Clark, A.S., MacLusky, N.J. J. Neurosci. (1987) [Pubmed]
  17. Carcinogenicity of uracil, a nongenotoxic chemical, in rats and mice and its rationale. Fukushima, S., Tanaka, H., Asakawa, E., Kagawa, M., Yamamoto, A., Shirai, T. Cancer Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Selenium-binding protein 2, the major hepatic target for acetaminophen, shows sex differences in protein abundance. Mattow, J., Demuth, I., Haeselbarth, G., Jungblut, P.R., Klose, J. Electrophoresis (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Sex differences in the escalation of oral phencyclidine (PCP) self-administration under FR and PR schedules in rhesus monkeys. Carroll, M.E., Batulis, D.K., Landry, K.L., Morgan, A.D. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Sex-linked hepatic uroporphyria and the induction of cytochromes P450IA in rats caused by hexachlorobenzene and polyhalogenated biphenyls. Smith, A.G., Francis, J.E., Green, J.A., Greig, J.B., Wolf, C.R., Manson, M.M. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  21. When is a sex difference not a sex difference? McCarthy, M.M., Konkle, A.T. Frontiers in neuroendocrinology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Deletion of Bax eliminates sex differences in the mouse forebrain. Forger, N.G., Rosen, G.J., Waters, E.M., Jacob, D., Simerly, R.B., de Vries, G.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. A specific membrane binding protein for progesterone in rat brain: sex differences and induction by estrogen. Tischkau, S.A., Ramirez, V.D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. In vivo measurement of thromboxane B2 and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha in humans in response to a standardized vascular injury and the influence of aspirin. Gerrard, J.M., Taback, S., Singhroy, S., Docherty, J.C., Kostolansky, I., McNicol, A., Kobrinsky, N.L., McKenzie, J.K., Rowe, R. Circulation (1989) [Pubmed]
  25. Sexually dimorphic expression of estrogen receptor beta in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus of the rat preoptic area: implication in luteinizing hormone surge. Orikasa, C., Kondo, Y., Hayashi, S., McEwen, B.S., Sakuma, Y. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. Effects of sex difference, gonadectomy, and estrogen on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea induced rat thyroid tumors. Mori, M., Naito, M., Watanabe, H., Takeichi, N., Dohi, K., Ito, A. Cancer Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  27. Estrogen and progesterone receptors in the gallbladders from patients with gallstones. Ranelletti, F.O., Piantelli, M., Farinon, A.M., Zanella, E., Capelli, A. Hepatology (1991) [Pubmed]
  28. Sex difference in ontogenesis of circadian adrenocortical rhythm in cortisone-primed rats. Miyabo, S., Hisada, T. Nature (1975) [Pubmed]
  29. Sex differences in regional cerebral glucose metabolism during a resting state. Gur, R.C., Mozley, L.H., Mozley, P.D., Resnick, S.M., Karp, J.S., Alavi, A., Arnold, S.E., Gur, R.E. Science (1995) [Pubmed]
  30. Sex differences in serotonin 1 receptor binding in rat brain. Fischette, C.T., Biegon, A., McEwen, B.S. Science (1983) [Pubmed]
  31. Getting excited about GABA and sex differences in the brain. McCarthy, M.M., Auger, A.P., Perrot-Sinal, T.S. Trends Neurosci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. Sexual differentiation of monoaminergic neurons--genetic or epigenetic? Reisert, I., Pilgrim, C. Trends Neurosci. (1991) [Pubmed]
  33. Haplotype transmission analysis provides evidence of association for DISC1 to schizophrenia and suggests sex-dependent effects. Hennah, W., Varilo, T., Kestilä, M., Paunio, T., Arajärvi, R., Haukka, J., Parker, A., Martin, R., Levitzky, S., Partonen, T., Meyer, J., Lönnqvist, J., Peltonen, L., Ekelund, J. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  34. Identification and characterization of the prolactin-binding protein in human serum and milk. Kline, J.B., Clevenger, C.V. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  35. Lipid transfer protein activities in type 1 diabetic patients without renal failure and nondiabetic control subjects and their association with coronary artery calcification. Colhoun, H.M., Scheek, L.M., Rubens, M.B., Van Gent, T., Underwood, S.R., Fuller, J.H., Van Tol, A. Diabetes (2001) [Pubmed]
  36. Coupling of endothelin B receptors to the calcium pump and phospholipase C via Gs and Gq in rat liver. Jouneaux, C., Mallat, A., Serradeil-Le Gal, C., Goldsmith, P., Hanoune, J., Lotersztajn, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  37. Sex differences in dopamine receptors and their relevance to ADHD. Andersen, S.L., Teicher, M.H. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews. (2000) [Pubmed]
  38. Contribution of GIRK2-mediated postsynaptic signaling to opiate and alpha 2-adrenergic analgesia and analgesic sex differences. Mitrovic, I., Margeta-Mitrovic, M., Bader, S., Stoffel, M., Jan, L.Y., Basbaum, A.I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  39. Association between increased estrogen status and increased fibrinolytic potential in the Framingham Offspring Study. Gebara, O.C., Mittleman, M.A., Sutherland, P., Lipinska, I., Matheney, T., Xu, P., Welty, F.K., Wilson, P.W., Levy, D., Muller, J.E. Circulation (1995) [Pubmed]
  40. Long-term (5-year) changes in HDL cholesterol in cardiac rehabilitation patients. Do sex differences exist? Warner, J.G., Brubaker, P.H., Zhu, Y., Morgan, T.M., Ribisl, P.M., Miller, H.S., Herrington, D.M. Circulation (1995) [Pubmed]
  41. Augmented senile plaque load in aged female beta-amyloid precursor protein-transgenic mice. Callahan, M.J., Lipinski, W.J., Bian, F., Durham, R.A., Pack, A., Walker, L.C. Am. J. Pathol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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