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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Postmenopause


Psychiatry related information on Postmenopause


High impact information on Postmenopause


Chemical compound and disease context of Postmenopause


Biological context of Postmenopause

  • The effects of oral alendronate treatment on spinal bone mineral density and biochemical markers of bone turnover were assessed in women in the early postmenopausal period [19].
  • RESULTS: Baseline retinol levels were significantly lower (P <or= 0.05) in subjects <or= 45 years than in older subjects, and among subjects in the age range 46-55 years, they were significantly higher (P <or= 0.001) in those in postmenopause than in those in premenopause [20].
  • The immunostaining intensity of IGF-I, IGF-IR, and IGFBPs in fallopian epithelial cells was cycle-dependent and considerably higher in late proliferative and early-mid secretory compared to late secretory phases, with little immunostaining in the early proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle and postmenopausal period [21].
  • Nutrition and 'lifestyle' may exert its carcinogenic effects indirectly by cell stimulations (alcohol, hormone therapy in postmenopause), inhibition of DNA-repair mechanisms (lack of vitamins), effecting estrogen metabolism (phytoestrogenes), or as promotors to enhance growth of tumours (body mass index) [22].
  • CONCLUSION: The transition from pre to perimenopause as well as from peri to postmenopause seems to be independently related to a high increase of depressive symptomatology [23].

Anatomical context of Postmenopause

  • In previous studies we have shown that monocytes from patients with high turnover osteoporosis and from women in early postmenopause elaborate increased amounts of interleukin-1 (IL-1), a cytokine that stimulates bone resorption in vitro and in vivo [24].
  • The mammary gland sequentially acquires and cyclically exhibits proliferative responses to estrogen and/or progesterone from birth to postmenopause [25].
  • CONCLUSIONS: A moderate intensity exercise program induces favourable alterations in total serum cholesterol and other atherogenic indices in hyperlipidemic women postmenopause, and these changes are related more to loss of body fat than to increased fitness level [26].
  • In contrast, TNF-alpha type 1 receptor mRNA expression was higher in endometrium from the secretory phase (6.6 +/- 0.6 x 10(7) copies) compared to the menses (5.1 +/- 0.5 x 10(6) copies), proliferative phase (1.9 +/- 0.1 x 10(6) copies) and postmenopausal period (5.8 +/- 0.7 x 10(4) copies [P < 0.05]) [27].
  • The discovery of alpha and recently beta estrogen receptors on coronary female vessels unaffected by atherosclerosis either during pre and post-menopause phase are possible key of interpretation of pathophysiology of coronary artery disease in women, with important therapeutic consequence [28].

Associations of Postmenopause with chemical compounds

  • Compared to postmenopausal women, perimenopausal women had more overall estrone excretion (2.5-6.2 ng/mg Cr in postmenopausal women; P = 0.02) and lower mean FSH (range of means for postmenopause, 24-85 IU/g Cr; P = 0.017) and LH (range for postmenopause, 4.3-14.8 IU/g Cr; P = 0.041) [29].
  • There were no significant changes in the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin LD or vitamin D-binding protein levels from the pre- to the postmenopausal period [30].
  • Among postmenopausal women, a steep, age-related decline in nocturnal melatonin secretion was found for up to 15 years postmenopause, followed by an extremely gradual decline thereafter [31].
  • Two years' effectiveness of intravenous pamidronate (APD) versus oral fluoride for osteoporosis occurring in the postmenopause [32].
  • Forty-nine postmenopausal women, mean age 61 +/- 5 years, mean time postmenopause 12.6 +/- 8.8 years, were treated with atorvastatin, 20 mg per day ( n=24) or matching placebos ( n=25) for 8 weeks [33].

Gene context of Postmenopause

  • Based on increasing evidence that ovarian regulation involves a complex system of putative para/autocrine factors, we investigated the possibility of gene-selective intraovarian GH/placental lactogen (PL) hormone production, with emphasis on differences between pre- and postmenopause [34].
  • The immunostaining for EGF, TGF alpha, and EGF-R was cycle-dependent, was considerably higher during late proliferative and early-to-mid-secretory phases than during early proliferative and late secretory phases of the menstrual cycle, and was reduced during the postmenopausal period [35].
  • This suggests that neither IL-1 nor IL-6 by itself is the major mediator for increased bone loss due to estrogen deficiency in the early postmenopausal period [36].
  • As we adjusted the cut-off points by menopause states, the PAI-1 positivity increased mainly in post-menopause cancer patients [37].
  • We concluded that ER and PR diminish sharply at post-menopause [38].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Postmenopause


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  15. Repeated serum and urinary androgen measurements in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Micheli, A., Muti, P., Pisani, P., Secreto, G., Recchione, C., Totis, A., Fissi, R., Cavalleri, A., Panico, S., Berrino, F. Journal of clinical epidemiology. (1991) [Pubmed]
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  17. Impact of different hormone replacement therapy regimens on the size of myoma uteri in postmenopausal period: tibolone versus transdermal hormonal replacement system. Simsek, T., Karakus, C., Trak, B. Maturitas. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Estrogen and progesterone receptors in neoplastic cells of metastatic pleural effusion of breast carcinoma before and after tamoxifen therapy. Correlation with the clinical response. Di Lorenzo, D., Zaniboni, A., Simoncini, E., Marpicati, P., Montini, E., Alghisi, A., Gorni, F., Marini, G. Chemioterapia : international journal of the Mediterranean Society of Chemotherapy. (1986) [Pubmed]
  19. The effect of short term treatment with alendronate on vertebral density and biochemical markers of bone remodeling in early postmenopausal women. Harris, S.T., Gertz, B.J., Genant, H.K., Eyre, D.R., Survill, T.T., Ventura, J.N., DeBrock, J., Ricerca, E., Chesnut, C.H. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Fenretinide breast cancer prevention trial: drug and retinol plasma levels in relation to age and disease outcome. Formelli, F., Camerini, T., Cavadini, E., Appierto, V., Villani, M.G., Costa, A., De Palo, G., Di Mauro, M.G., Veronesi, U. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. (2003) [Pubmed]
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  22. Nutrition and lifestyle factors on the risk of developing breast cancer. Gerber, B., Müller, H., Reimer, T., Krause, A., Friese, K. Breast Cancer Res. Treat. (2003) [Pubmed]
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