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MeSH Review

Reinforcement (Psychology)

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Psychiatry related information on Reinforcement (Psychology)


High impact information on Reinforcement (Psychology)

  • Mu opioid receptors mediate positive reinforcement following direct (morphine) or indirect (alcohol, cannabinoids, nicotine) activation, and our understanding of mu receptor function is central to the development of addiction therapies [2].
  • Movement, cognition, emotion, and positive reinforcement are influenced by mesostriatal, mesocortical, and mesolimbic dopamine systems [3].
  • Drosophila carrying the X-linked mutation dunce (dnc) showed poor learning in a negative reinforcement olfactory conditioning paradigm (Dudai, Y., Y.-N. Jan, D. Byers, W.G. Quinn, and S. Benzer (1976) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 73: 1684-1688) [4].
  • CONCLUSIONS: The data are compatible with the clinical findings and suggest that the reduction in ethanol consumption by alcoholics following naltrexone administration may occur because of greater subjective intoxication, greater aversive effects, or less positive reinforcement from ethanol [5].
  • It would seem then that the Opponent Process Theory has provided a useful conceptual framework for the study of the behavioral consequences of self-administered cocaine including the notion that both positive and negative reinforcement mechanisms are involved in the development and maintenance of cocaine abuse [6].

Chemical compound and disease context of Reinforcement (Psychology)

  • Overall, these data are consistent with a negative reinforcement model of caffeine reinforcement, and demonstrate further the utility of the conditioned flavour preference method for evaluating reinforcing effects of drugs in humans [7].
  • DSP4 and Herrnstein's equation: further evidence for a role of noradrenaline in the maintenance of operant behaviour by positive reinforcement [8].
  • Effects of acamprosate on conditioned negative reinforcement may be the cause of this effect, but more work is required to establish the usefulness of this model in evaluation of anti-relapse drugs [9].
  • In positive reinforcement experiments a rat was rewarded by glucose or ICSS only when it licked a spout presented in front of its mouth [10].
  • The interaction between pimozide (a selective D2-dopamine receptor antagonist) and d-amphetamine on the operant performance of rats maintained under variable-interval schedules of positive reinforcement was examined [11].

Anatomical context of Reinforcement (Psychology)


Gene context of Reinforcement (Psychology)

  • RESULTS: Main effects for Cue exposure but not Prime were found for the DAQ total and the subscales Mild desires (positively reinforcing items) and Strong desires/intentions but not Negative reinforcement (negatively reinforcing items) and Controllability; however, there was no interaction [15].
  • We explore the concept of impulsivity and its relation with the neurotransmitter serotonin in the context of aggressive behavior and behavior associated with positive reinforcement using a knockout mouse that lacks one of the serotonin receptors, the 5-HT1B receptor [16].
  • The most support was found for the hypothesis that e PKU subjects are more emotional which would account for a disruption in performance following negative reinforcement, and difficulty in changing an initial or a learned response pattern [17].
  • Sixty fourth-grade children were given two different series of the Porteus Maze Test. The first series was given as a baseline, and the second series was administered under one of four different experimental conditions: control, response cost, positive reinforcement, or negative verbal feedback [18].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Reinforcement (Psychology)


  1. Lack of startle modulation by smoking cues in smokers. Orain-Pelissolo, S., Grillon, C., Perez-Diaz, F., Jouvent, R. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Mu opioid receptor: a gateway to drug addiction. Contet, C., Kieffer, B.L., Befort, K. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Nigrostriatal collaterals to thalamus degenerate in parkinsonian animal models. Freeman, A., Ciliax, B., Bakay, R., Daley, J., Miller, R.D., Keating, G., Levey, A., Rye, D. Ann. Neurol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate phosphodiesterase and its role in learning in Drosophila. Shotwell, S.L. J. Neurosci. (1983) [Pubmed]
  5. Naltrexone-induced alterations in human ethanol intoxication. Swift, R.M., Whelihan, W., Kuznetsov, O., Buongiorno, G., Hsuing, H. The American journal of psychiatry. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Opponent process properties of self-administered cocaine. Ettenberg, A. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Conditioned flavour preference negatively reinforced by caffeine in human volunteers. Yeomans, M.R., Spetch, H., Rogers, P.J. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. DSP4 and Herrnstein's equation: further evidence for a role of noradrenaline in the maintenance of operant behaviour by positive reinforcement. Morley, M.J., Shah, K., Bradshaw, C.M., Szabadi, E. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Acamprosate, but not naltrexone, inhibits conditioned abstinence behaviour associated with repeated ethanol administration and exposure to a plus-maze. Cole, J.C., Littleton, J.M., Little, H.J. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Hypothalamic neuron involvement in integration of reward, aversion, and cue signals. Ono, T., Nakamura, K., Nishijo, H., Fukuda, M. J. Neurophysiol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  11. Attenuation by pimozide of the suppressant effect of d-amphetamine on operant behaviour. Morley, M.J., Bradshaw, C.M., Szabadi, E. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1987) [Pubmed]
  12. The involvement of nucleus accumbens dopamine in appetitive and aversive motivation. Salamone, J.D. Behav. Brain Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Facilitation of brain stimulation reward by mesencephalic injections of neurotensin-(1-13). Rompré, P.P., Bauco, P., Gratton, A. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. Pharmacological adjuncts in the treatment of opioid and cocaine addicts. Herridge, P., Gold, M.S. Journal of psychoactive drugs. (1988) [Pubmed]
  15. The effects of alcohol cues and an alcohol priming dose on a multi-factorial measure of subjective cue reactivity in social drinkers. Schulze, D., Jones, B.T. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Insights into the neurobiology of impulsive behavior from serotonin receptor knockout mice. Brunner, D., Hen, R. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Analysis of learning in retarded monkeys. Chamove, A.S. Journal of mental deficiency research. (1984) [Pubmed]
  18. Response cost, reinforcement, and children's Porteus Maze qualitative performance. Neenan, D.M., Routh, D.K. Journal of abnormal child psychology. (1986) [Pubmed]
  19. Neurocircuitry targets in ethanol reward and dependence. Koob, G.F., Roberts, A.J., Schulteis, G., Parsons, L.H., Heyser, C.J., Hyytiä, P., Merlo-Pich, E., Weiss, F. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Medial thalamic injection of opioid agonists: mu-agonist increases while kappa-agonist decreases stimulus thresholds for pain and reward. Carr, K.D., Bak, T.H. Brain Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
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