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MeSH Review

Pubic Symphysis

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Disease relevance of Pubic Symphysis


High impact information on Pubic Symphysis

  • Relaxin, a peptide hormone secreted by the corpus luteum during pregnancy, exerts actions on reproductive tissues such as the pubic symphysis, uterus, and cervix [4].
  • Whole relaxins shortened at the NH2 terminus of the A-chain by 4 or more amino acid residues are biologically inactive in the mouse pubic symphysis assay (Büllesbach, E. E., and Schwabe, C. (1986) Biochemistry 25, 5998-6004) [5].
  • It is concluded that relaxin has a potent effect on the amount of collagen in the rat pubic symphysis that is enhanced by estrogen and antagonized by progesterone [6].
  • The changes in the extracellular matrix within the pubic symphysis induced by relaxin may be important in the modifications that this tissue undergoes during pregnancy [6].
  • Relaxin-dependent adenosine 6',5'-monophosphate concentration changes in the mouse pubic symphysis [7].

Biological context of Pubic Symphysis


Anatomical context of Pubic Symphysis


Associations of Pubic Symphysis with chemical compounds


Gene context of Pubic Symphysis

  • Relaxin administration did not increase the level of cAMP in a non-target tissue such as liver, nor could an increase in cAMP in the pubic symphysis be elicited by injection of insulin, a protein of similar size and structure, or glucagon, a known stimulator of liver cAMP levels [7].
  • Two variant forms of porcine relaxin (B and C) are active in producing relaxation of the guinea pig pubic symphysis and in effecting uterine growth in rats [15].
  • A midline symphysotomy was made through the cartilaginous pubic symphysis in three groups and repaired using two figure-of-eight sutures (size 0) placed through the cartilaginous pubis using polypropylene, braided polyester, or polyglactin [16].
  • The OPEN group underwent a midline incision from xiphoid to pubic symphysis, which was clipped closed after 20 min [17].
  • Our three cases are presented to increase awareness of pubic symphysis fractures as a cause for groin pain, especially in patients with osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis [18].


  1. Mechanisms of relaxin action in the reproductive tract: studies in the relaxin-deficient (Rlx-/-) mouse. Parry, L.J., McGuane, J.T., Gehring, H.M., Kostic, I.G., Siebel, A.L. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Octreotide scanning in the detection of a mesenchymal tumour in the pubic symphysis causing hypophosphataemic osteomalacia. Moran, M., Paul, A. International orthopaedics. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Inhibition of relaxin-induced pubic symphyseal "relaxation" in guinea pigs by glycosaminoglycan polysulfates and pentosan polysulfate. Steinetz, B.G., Lust, G. Agents Actions (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Circulating relaxin acts on subfornical organ neurons to stimulate water drinking in the rat. Sunn, N., Egli, M., Burazin, T.C., Burns, P., Colvill, L., Davern, P., Denton, D.A., Oldfield, B.J., Weisinger, R.S., Rauch, M., Schmid, H.A., McKinley, M.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Relaxin structure. Quasi allosteric effect of the NH2-terminal A-chain helix. Büllesbach, E.E., Schwabe, C. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  6. The effect of relaxin on collagen metabolism in the nonpregnant rat pubic symphysis: the influence of estrogen and progesterone in regulating relaxin activity. Samuel, C.S., Butkus, A., Coghlan, J.P., Bateman, J.F. Endocrinology (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Relaxin-dependent adenosine 6',5'-monophosphate concentration changes in the mouse pubic symphysis. Braddon, S.A. Endocrinology (1978) [Pubmed]
  8. Effect of hormones on collagen metabolism and collagenase activity in the pubic symphysis ligament of the guinea pig. Wahl, L.M., Blandau, R.J., Page, R.C. Endocrinology (1977) [Pubmed]
  9. Anatomy of ilioinguinal and iliohypogastric nerves in relation to trocar placement and low transverse incisions. Whiteside, J.L., Barber, M.D., Walters, M.D., Falcone, T. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Biomechanical comparison of posterior pelvic ring fixation. Yinger, K., Scalise, J., Olson, S.A., Bay, B.K., Finkemeier, C.G. Journal of orthopaedic trauma. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Acetabular fracture fixation via a modified Stoppa limited intrapelvic approach. Description of operative technique and preliminary treatment results. Cole, J.D., Bolhofner, B.R. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Relaxin's induction of metalloproteinases is associated with the loss of collagen and glycosaminoglycans in synovial joint fibrocartilaginous explants. Naqvi, T., Duong, T.T., Hashem, G., Shiga, M., Zhang, Q., Kapila, S. Arthritis Res. Ther. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Laparoscope-assisted appendectomy in children: the two-trocar technique. Valioulis, I., Hameury, F., Dahmani, L., Levard, G. European journal of pediatric surgery : official journal of Austrian Association of Pediatric Surgery ... [et al] = Zeitschrift für Kinderchirurgie. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Treatment of osteitis pubis in athletes. Results of corticosteroid injections. Holt, M.A., Keene, J.S., Graf, B.K., Helwig, D.C. The American journal of sports medicine. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Effects of porcine relaxins upon uterine hypertrophy and protein metabolism in mice. Bylander, J.E., Frieden, E.H., Adams, W.C. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. Pubic symphysis repair strength in simulated bladder exstrophy using a sheep model. Urquhart, A.G., Frankenburg, E.P., Bloom, D.A., Loder, R.T. Urology (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Time course of differences in lymphocyte proliferation rates after laparotomy vs CO(2) insufflation. Lee, S.W., Southall, J.C., Gleason, N.R., Huang, E.H., Bessler, M., Whelan, R.L. Surgical endoscopy. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Groin and hip pain due to fractures at or near the pubic symphysis. Nicholas, J.J., Haidet, E., Helfrich, D., Herndon, J.H., Cooperstein, L. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. (1989) [Pubmed]
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