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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Umbilicus


Psychiatry related information on Umbilicus

  • METHODS: A total of 2417 men and 384 women were measured for VO2max by indirect calorimetry (RER > 1.1); age (yr); gender by M = 1, W = 0; self-report activity habit by the 11-point (0-10) NASA physical activity status scale (PASS); WG at the apex of the umbilicus; %fat by skinfolds; and BMI by weight (kg) divided by height squared (m) [6].

High impact information on Umbilicus

  • In mouse embryos Rieg mRNA localized in the periocular mesenchyme, maxillary and mandibular epithelia, and umbilicus, all consistent with RIEG abnormalities [7].
  • Fundal height--can we trust the umbilicus [8]?
  • Midway between xiphoid and umbilicus, the SEA were 5.50 +/- 0.16 cm on the right of the midline and 5.36 +/- 0.16 cm on the left [9].
  • Of the channels 12 were implanted in the umbilicus (CCC 6, MACE 6) and 12 in a stoma created by the VR flap [10].
  • Mutations in PITX2 cause some cases of Rieger syndrome, an autosomal dominant disorder affecting eyes, teeth, and umbilicus [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Umbilicus


Anatomical context of Umbilicus

  • In every case, the umbilicus was located cephalad to where the common iliac vein crossed the midline [14].
  • The traditional treatment of a residual urachus is surgical resection of the entire tract from the dome of the bladder to the umbilicus through a lower midline incision [15].
  • Urachal cysts manifest at both modalities as a noncommunicating, fluid-filled cavity in the midline lower abdominal wall located just beneath the umbilicus or above the bladder [16].
  • Indomethacin at a large dose (10 mg/kg), administered to the dams, induced a reduction in prostaglandins, severe constriction of the ductus arteriosus, and decreased blood flow through the descending aorta umbilicus, and caused a further reduction in the DV diameter to 70-80% of the control [17].
  • This technique emphasizes identification and incision of the point at which the midline abdominal fascia is fused with the base of the umbilicus, and the importance of the application of countertraction directly at the point of insertion [18].

Associations of Umbilicus with chemical compounds

  • Lidocaine caused an increase in all CPTs at the umbilicus and the knee reaching a statistical significance at 5 Hz for the umbilicus only [19].
  • Intra-amniotic injection of Renografin followed by a single-slice computed tomographic scan at the level of the umbilicus is described [20].
  • RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Premenopausal women showed the lowest values in most abdominal distribution parameters, although, depending on the waist circumference criteria at the umbilicus level perimeter (W1) or midway between lower rib margin and iliac crest perimeter (W2), the population was classified differently, as gynoid or android [21].
  • Duration of tolerance of electrical stimulation at the umbilicus, hip, knee, and ankle was increased with fentanyl (181% increase from plain lidocaine on average; P < 0.01) [22].
  • Cannulation in situ of equine umbilicus. Identification by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of differences in steroid content between arterial and venous supplies to and from the placental surface [23].

Gene context of Umbilicus

  • Pitx2 protein immunostaining was detectable during the development of the eye, tooth, umbilicus, and also in the pituitary, heart, gut, and limb [24].
  • Surveillance cultures taken during this time revealed a 20% colonization rate, which was defined as recovery of MRSA from the nares, umbilicus, or groin [25].
  • SCF was estimated from age, umbilicus circumference, chest and suprailiac skinfolds [26].
  • The most visible scar in the conventional abdominoplasty procedure or TRAM flap donor site closure is the scar around the reinserted umbilicus [27].
  • The only consistent pattern distribution was that mff were recovered from all 10 hides at four sample sites along the ventral midline near the umbilicus [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Umbilicus

  • Because of this concern, the midline below the umbilicus is often recommended as a site for paracentesis because of its presumed avascularity [29].
  • We have employed this technique for 4 years in 600 patients without a midline laparotomy incision incorporating the umbilicus and have accessed the abdomen safely for laparoscopy without any complications [30].
  • In nine subjects the influence of low (LE: blockade at or below the umbilicus; Th. 10) and high epidural anaesthesia (HE: block above the umbilicus) on vascular tone was evaluated by high frequency ultrasound (20 mHz) determined luminal diameter and a Doppler (8 mHz) assessment of mean blood flow velocity (Vmean) in the dorsalis pedis artery [31].
  • The absorption of radiolabeled soluble insulin ([125I]Actrapid Human; 10 U) from subcutaneous injection sites above (120 mm) and below (40 mm) the umbilicus was studied on 2 consecutive days in nine IDDM patients during 180 min [32].
  • We concluded that the techniques described here using propofol and sevoflurane are equally suitable for induction and maintenance of anaesthesia with the LMA in children undergoing minor surgery below the umbilicus [33].


  1. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase from pennywort (Umbilicus rupestris). Changes in properties after exposure to water stress. Daniel, P.P., Bryant, J.A., Woodward, F.I. Biochem. J. (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Laparoscopic bilateral hand assisted nephrectomy for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: initial experience. Rehman, J., Landman, J., Andreoni, C., McDougall, E.M., Clayman, R.V. J. Urol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Circumumbilical versus transumbilical abdominal incision. Paes, T.R., Stoker, D.L., Ng, T., Morecroft, J. The British journal of surgery. (1987) [Pubmed]
  4. The effect of fluoxetine on body weight, body composition and visceral fat accumulation. Visser, M., Seidell, J.C., Koppeschaar, H.P., Smits, P. Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Laparoscopy using the left upper quadrant as the primary trocar site. Childers, J.M., Brzechffa, P.R., Surwit, E.A. Gynecol. Oncol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Nonexercise models for estimating VO2max with waist girth, percent fat, or BMI. Wier, L.T., Jackson, A.S., Ayers, G.W., Arenare, B. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Cloning and characterization of a novel bicoid-related homeobox transcription factor gene, RIEG, involved in Rieger syndrome. Semina, E.V., Reiter, R., Leysens, N.J., Alward, W.L., Small, K.W., Datson, N.A., Siegel-Bartelt, J., Bierke-Nelson, D., Bitoun, P., Zabel, B.U., Carey, J.C., Murray, J.C. Nat. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Fundal height--can we trust the umbilicus? Royburt, M., Seidman, D.S. Lancet (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Safety zones for anterior abdominal wall entry during laparoscopy: a CT scan mapping of epigastric vessels. Saber, A.A., Meslemani, A.M., Davis, R., Pimentel, R. Ann. Surg. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Simplified technique to create a concealed catheterizable stoma: the VR flap. Franc-Guimond, J., González, R. J. Urol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. The human BARX2 gene: genomic structure, chromosomal localization, and single nucleotide polymorphisms. Hjalt, T.A., Murray, J.C. Genomics (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Symphysis-fundal height measurement--a reliable parameter for assessment of fetal growth. Indira, R., Oumachigui, A., Narayan, K.A., Rajaram, P., Ramalingam, G. International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Influence of fetal death and fetectomy on gestation and the initiation of parturition in the ewe. Rueda, B.R., Dunn, T.G., Anthony, R.V., Moss, G.E. Reprod. Fertil. Dev. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. The relationship of the umbilicus to the aortic bifurcation: implications for laparoscopic technique. Hurd, W.W., Bude, R.O., DeLancey, J.O., Pearl, M.L. Obstetrics and gynecology. (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Laparoscopic excision of the urachus. Groot-Wassink, T., Deo, H., Charfare, H., Foley, R. Surgical endoscopy. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Urachal remnant diseases: spectrum of CT and US findings. Yu, J.S., Kim, K.W., Lee, H.J., Lee, Y.J., Yoon, C.S., Kim, M.J. Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Effect of decreased umbilical blood flow and hemorrhage, and decreased prostaglandins on the ductus venosus diameter in the rat. Takeuchi, D., Momma, K. Biol. Neonate (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Safe and rapid laparoscopic access--a new approach. Antevil, J.L., Bhoyrul, S., Brunson, M.E., Vierra, M.A., Swadia, N.D. World journal of surgery. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Quantitative assessment of differential sensory blockade after lumbar epidural lidocaine. Tay, B., Wallace, M.S., Irving, G. Anesth. Analg. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Late diagnosis of nonconjoined monoamniotic twins using computed tomographic imaging: a case report. Carlan, S.J., Angel, J.L., Sawai, S.K., Vaughn, V. Obstetrics and gynecology. (1990) [Pubmed]
  21. Anthropometric, computed tomography and fat cell data in an obese population: relationship with insulin, leptin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, sex hormone-binding globulin and sex hormones. Garaulet, M., Pérex-Llamas, F., Fuente, T., Zamora, S., Tebar, F.J. Eur. J. Endocrinol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Fentanyl prolongs lidocaine spinal anesthesia without prolonging recovery. Liu, S., Chiu, A.A., Carpenter, R.L., Mulroy, M.F., Allen, H.W., Neal, J.M., Pollock, J.E. Anesth. Analg. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Cannulation in situ of equine umbilicus. Identification by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of differences in steroid content between arterial and venous supplies to and from the placental surface. Marshall, D.E., Gower, D.B., Silver, M., Fowden, A., Houghton, E. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. The Pitx2 protein in mouse development. Hjalt, T.A., Semina, E.V., Amendt, B.A., Murray, J.C. Dev. Dyn. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Latex agglutination-negative methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus recovered from neonates: epidemiologic features and comparison of typing methods. Wanger, A.R., Morris, S.L., Ericsson, C., Singh, K.V., LaRocco, M.T. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  26. Development and validation of computed tomography derived anthropometric regression equations for estimating abdominal adipose tissue distribution. Kekes-Szabo, T., Hunter, G.R., Nyikos, I., Nicholson, C., Snyder, S., Berland, L. Obes. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. New technique for scarless umbilical reinsertion in abdominoplasty procedures. Schoeller, T., Wechselberger, G., Otto, A., Rainer, C., Schwabegger, A., Lille, S., Ninković, M. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Distribution of Onchocerca spp. microfilariae in the dermis of cattle. Ferenc, S.A., Harty, T.M., Courtney, C.H., Copeman, D.B. Vet. Parasitol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  29. Subumbilical midline vascularity of the abdominal wall in portal hypertension observed at laparoscopy. Oelsner, D.H., Caldwell, S.H., Coles, M., Driscoll, C.J. Gastrointest. Endosc. (1998) [Pubmed]
  30. Umbilical stalk technique for establishing pneumoperitoneum. Carbonell, A.M., Harold, K.L., Smith, T.I., Matthews, B.D., Sing, R.F., Kercher, K.W., Heniford, B.T. Journal of laparoendoscopic & advanced surgical techniques. Part A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Effect of epidural anaesthesia on dorsal pedis arterial diameter and blood flow. Rørdam, P., Olesen, H.L., Sindrup, J., Secher, N.H. Clinical physiology (Oxford, England) (1995) [Pubmed]
  32. Clinically important differences in insulin absorption from abdomen in IDDM. Frid, A., Linde, B. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. (1993) [Pubmed]
  33. Sevoflurane versus propofol for induction and maintenance of anaesthesia with the laryngeal mask airway in children. Lopéz Gil, M.L., Brimacombe, J., Clar, B. Paediatric anaesthesia. (1999) [Pubmed]
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