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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Contraluminal organic anion and cation transport in the proximal renal tubule: V. Interaction with sulfamoyl- and phenoxy diuretics, and with beta-lactam antibiotics.

In order to study the interaction of sulfamoyl- and phenoxy diuretics as well as of beta-lactam antibiotics with the contraluminal anion and cation transport systems the inhibitory potency of these substances against the influx of 3H-para-aminohippurate, 14C-succinate, 35S-sulfate and 3H-N1-methylnicotinamide into cortical tubular cells have been determined. 1.) 2-, 3- and 4-sulfamoylbenzoate inhibit contraluminal PAH influx. N-dipropyl substitution to yield probenecid or ring-substitution to yield furosemide and piretanide augment the inhibitory potency. However, hydrochlorothiazide and acetazolamide exert only a moderate inhibitory potency. Succinate transport was inhibited by furosemide only. Sulfate transport was inhibited by furosemide and 3-sulfamoyl-4-phenoxybenzoate as well as by probenecid, piretanide, hydrochlorothiazide and acetazolamide. 2.) Phenoxyacetate, -propionate, and -butyrate exert increasing inhibition against PAH transport. The weed-killers 2,4-dichloro-, and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetate (2,4 D and 2,4,5 T) had a similar inhibitory potency, while ethacrynic acid showed a lower and the uricosuric tienilic acid a higher inhibitory potency. None of the compounds of this group interact with contraluminal succinate transport, and only the multiring-substituted compounds 2,4 D, 2,4,5 T, ethacrynic and tienilic acid interact slightly with the sulfate transporter. 3.) The monocarboxylic penicillins benzylpenicillin and phenoxymethylpenicillin as well as the dicarboxylic ticarcillin interact with the contraluminal PAH transport. The aminopenicillin ampicillin had a lower, and apalcillin a higher inhibitory potency than monocarboxylic penicillin. Benzylpenicillin showed small inhibition against succinate transport and ticarcillin against sulfate transport. 4.) The monocarboxylic cephalosporine, 6315 S Shionogi, and the aminocephalosporines, cephalexin and cefadroxil, showed an app. Ki.PAH as the comparable penicillins. The zwitterions cephaloridine and cefpirome did not interact with the PAH transporter, but with the organic cation (NMN) transporter. Amongst the amino-thiazol-containing compounds cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, and cefodizime, increasing interaction with the PAH transporter was seen dependent of a second ionizable anionic group. Compounds with two ionizable anionic groups (cefsulodin, ceftriaxone, cefodizime) exert also a small inhibitory potency against sulfate transport. None of the cephalosporins interacted with the dicarboxylate transporter. The interaction pattern of the tested compounds is in accordance with the specificity requirements for the contraluminal transporters depending on electrical charge and hydrophobicity.[1]


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