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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Study on dipeptidylpeptidase II (DPP II).

The activity of dipeptidylpeptidase II (DPP II; E.C. was investigated by biochemical and histochemical methods in rat, mouse and guinea-pig organs as well as in human enterobiopsies. Lys-Pro-MNA and Ala-Pro-MNA showed the most favorable kinetic properties (Km, Vmax) and proved to be the most sensitive substrates for biochemical and histochemical studies of DPP II. Lys-Ala-MNA is more specific and is to be preferred due to its relatively low hydrolysis by DPP IV. Lys-Ala-2NA is suitable for the biochemical determination of DPP II activity. Lys-Ala-1NA, Leu-Ala-2NA, Phe-Pro-2NA and Phe-Pro-MNA are inferior. The pH optimum of DPP II amounts to 5. 5. Cacodylate, phosphate, citric acid phosphate and succinate buffers deliver similar hydrolysis rates; with citrate and acetate buffers the recorded activities are lower. The reaction can be inhibited by 1 mM DFP, 50 mM Tris and 10 mM puromycin. In the ileum of suckling rats and in human enterobiopsies similar data (Km, pH optimum, optimal substrate concentration) were obtained by biochemical determination and by quantitative histochemistry (microdensitometry) with Lys-Ala-MNA. For the histochemical demonstration of DPP II freeze-dried celloidin-coated cryostat sections are very suitable. Frozen sections of formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde fixed tissue blocks are inferior due to a higher inhibition of DPP II and less precise localization of the azo-dye. Km values and optimal pH are identical in fresh and fixed material. Fast Blue B is the best coupling agent for light microscopical localization. DPP II is present in all organs and tissues investigated. Conspicuous organ and species differences exist. In adult rats the highest DPP II activity resides in the kidney, epididymis and spleen; in guinea-pigs the epididymis and testis are the most active organs. In the majority of guinea-pig organs the DPP II activity is lower than in rats. The histochemical demonstration of DPP II shows, in addition, cell-dependent differences of DPP II activity. In most cells the enzyme activity is depicted in lysosomes. Highly active are lysosomes of cells of proximal renal tubules, macrophages, thyroid cells, clear and principal cells of the epididymis of adult animals and of enterocytes of suckling rats. Lysosomes of endocrine cells of adenohypophysis, pancreas, stomach, small intestine and nerve cells display moderate activity. In lysosomes of smooth muscle cells (intestine, myometrium), myocardial cells, and fibers of striated muscle the enzyme is also present. Spermatids and sperms of guinea-pigs are highly active. In some cases secretion granules of endocrine and exocrine gland cells display a positive reaction. Possibly the Golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic reticulum also show a positive staining in the principle cells of the rat and mouse epididymis. Furthermore, DPP II seems to be secreted into the lumen of several organs.[1]


  1. Study on dipeptidylpeptidase II (DPP II). Gossrau, R., Lojda, Z. Histochemistry (1980) [Pubmed]
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