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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Exocrine Glands

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Disease relevance of Exocrine Glands


Psychiatry related information on Exocrine Glands


High impact information on Exocrine Glands


Chemical compound and disease context of Exocrine Glands


Biological context of Exocrine Glands


Anatomical context of Exocrine Glands


Associations of Exocrine Glands with chemical compounds

  • Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor structure in acinar cells of mammalian exocrine glands [25].
  • BACKGROUND: Cevimeline hydrochloride is a cholinergic agent with muscarinic agonist activity prominently affecting the M1 and M3 receptors prevalent in exocrine glands [26].
  • In particular, P2X(4) and P2X(7) receptor subunits are colocalized on immune, epithelial, and exocrine gland cells, but both are relatively insensitive to suramin and pyridoxal-5-phosphate-6-azo-2',4'-disulfonic acid derivative [27].
  • In conclusion, our study demonstrates the expression of hNIS protein by several human exocrine glands, suggesting that iodide transport in these glands is a specific property conferred by the expression of hNIS protein, which may serve important functions by concentrating iodine in glandular secretions [28].
  • X and G thus exerted selective effects on the exocrine glands [29].

Gene context of Exocrine Glands

  • SF-1 immunoreactivity was also detected in the exocrine glands and was stronger than DAX-1 in the inner root sheath, matrix cells, and dermal papilla cells [30].
  • These results demonstrate that NHE1 is critical for regulating pHi during a muscarinic agonist-stimulated acid challenge and probably plays an important role in regulating fluid secretion in the sublingual exocrine gland [31].
  • Recently, the melanocortin-5 receptor (MC5R) has been demonstrated to have a role in the regulation of exocrine gland function [32].
  • Melanocortin receptors (MC1R-MC5R) and their ligands (melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) and adrenocorticotrophin hormone (ACTH)) have been shown to influence physiological functions of cells and organs, including exocrine glands [33].
  • A major site of expression of the ets transcription factor Elf5 is epithelia of exocrine glands [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Exocrine Glands


  1. Impaired beta adrenergic receptor binding and function in cystic fibrosis neutrophils. Galant, S.P., Norton, L., Herbst, J., Wood, C. J. Clin. Invest. (1981) [Pubmed]
  2. Role of proinflammatory cytokines in the impaired lacrimation associated with autoimmune xerophthalmia. Zoukhri, D., Hodges, R.R., Byon, D., Kublin, C.L. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Duodenal ulcer and Sjogren's syndrome in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis: a casual association? Biagini, M.R., Milani, S., Fedi, P., Calabro, A., Tedesco, A., Surrenti, C. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. Properties of serum lipase in patients with various pancreatic diseases. Analysis by a new serum lipase assay method (the BALB-DTNB method) in combination with gel-filtration and iso-electrofocusing techniques. Kurooka, S., Kitamura, T. J. Biochem. (1978) [Pubmed]
  5. Sjögren's syndrome associated with multiple myeloma. Terpos, E., Angelopoulou, M.K., Variami, E., Meletis, J.C., Vaiopoulos, G. Ann. Hematol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Lactoferrin functions: current status and perspectives. Valenti, P., Berlutti, F., Conte, M.P., Longhi, C., Seganti, L. J. Clin. Gastroenterol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Exocrine gland dysfunction in MC5-R-deficient mice: evidence for coordinated regulation of exocrine gland function by melanocortin peptides. Chen, W., Kelly, M.A., Opitz-Araya, X., Thomas, R.E., Low, M.J., Cone, R.D. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Tumor induction and tissue atrophy in mice lacking E2F-1. Yamasaki, L., Jacks, T., Bronson, R., Goillot, E., Harlow, E., Dyson, N.J. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. VIP occurs in intrathyroidal nerves and stimulates thyroid hormone secretion. Ahrén, B., Alumets, J., Ericsson, M., Fahrenkrug, J., Fahrenkrug, L., Håkanson, R., Hedner, P., Lorén, I., Melander, A., Rerup, C., Sundler, F. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
  10. Id3 knockout mice as a new model for sjogren's syndrome: only a T cell defect or more? Versnel, M.A. Immunity (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. XBP-1 is required for biogenesis of cellular secretory machinery of exocrine glands. Lee, A.H., Chu, G.C., Iwakoshi, N.N., Glimcher, L.H. EMBO J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. DNA fragmentation is a feature of cystic fibrosis epithelial cells: a disease with inappropriate apoptosis? Maiuri, L., Raia, V., De Marco, G., Coletta, S., de Ritis, G., Londei, M., Auricchio, S. FEBS Lett. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Decrease in insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) binding to erythrocytes from patients with cystic fibrosis. Dooghe, C., Grizard, G., Labbe, A., Grigorescu, F., Dardevet, D., Grizard, J. Diabetes Metab. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Benign prostatic hyperplasia. Steers, W.D., Zorn, B. Disease-a-month : DM. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Novel role for RbAp48 in tissue-specific, estrogen deficiency-dependent apoptosis in the exocrine glands. Ishimaru, N., Arakaki, R., Omotehara, F., Yamada, K., Mishima, K., Saito, I., Hayashi, Y. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Regulation of acetyl-CoA:1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine O2-acetyltransferase (lyso-PAF-acetyltransferase) in exocrine glands. Evidence for an activation via phosphorylation by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. Domenech, C., Machado-De Domenech, E., Söling, H.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  17. The M2 selective antagonist AF-DX 116 shows high affinity for muscarine receptors in bovine tracheal membranes. Roffel, A.F., in't Hout, W.G., de Zeeuw, R.A., Zaagsma, J. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  18. Sequestration and metabolism of protoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids by larvae of the leaf beetle Platyphora boucardi and their transfer via pupae into defensive secretions of adults. Pasteels, J.M., Theuring, C., Witte, L., Hartmann, T. J. Chem. Ecol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Effect of carbachol and prostaglandin E2 on chloride secretion and signal transduction in the exocrine glands of frog skin (Rana esculenta). Nielsen, M.S., Nielsen, R. Pflugers Arch. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. The biogenesis, traffic, and function of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator. Jilling, T., Kirk, K.L. Int. Rev. Cytol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Expression of melanocortin-5 receptor in secretory epithelia supports a functional role in exocrine and endocrine glands. van der Kraan, M., Adan, R.A., Entwistle, M.L., Gispen, W.H., Burbach, J.P., Tatro, J.B. Endocrinology (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. The melanocortin 5 receptor is expressed in human sebaceous glands and rat preputial cells. Thiboutot, D., Sivarajah, A., Gilliland, K., Cong, Z., Clawson, G. J. Invest. Dermatol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. The common mucosal immune system and current strategies for induction of immune responses in external secretions. Mestecky, J. J. Clin. Immunol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  24. Identification and localization of G proteins in exocrine glands. Watson, E.L., Di Julio, D., Oda, D., Izutsu, K.T. Crit. Rev. Oral Biol. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor structure in acinar cells of mammalian exocrine glands. Hootman, S.R., Picado-Leonard, T.M., Burnham, D.B. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  26. Cevimeline for the treatment of xerostomia in patients with Sjögren syndrome: a randomized trial. Fife, R.S., Chase, W.F., Dore, R.K., Wiesenhutter, C.W., Lockhart, P.B., Tindall, E., Suen, J.Y. Arch. Intern. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Brilliant blue G selectively blocks ATP-gated rat P2X(7) receptors. Jiang, L.H., Mackenzie, A.B., North, R.A., Surprenant, A. Mol. Pharmacol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Analysis of human sodium iodide symporter immunoreactivity in human exocrine glands. Spitzweg, C., Joba, W., Schriever, K., Goellner, J.R., Morris, J.C., Heufelder, A.E. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. Metabolism of perorally administered xylitol in rat tissues. Hämäläinen, M.M., Mäkinen, K.K. J. Nutr. (1981) [Pubmed]
  30. Transcriptional regulators of steroidogenesis, DAX-1 and SF-1, are expressed in human skin. Patel, M.V., McKay, I.A., Burrin, J.M. J. Invest. Dermatol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. Muscarinic receptor-induced acidification in sublingual mucous acinar cells: loss of pH recovery in Na+-H+ exchanger-1 deficient mice. Nguyen, H.V., Shull, G.E., Melvin, J.E. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2000) [Pubmed]
  32. Structure activity studies of the melanocortin antagonist SHU9119 modified at the 6, 7, 8, and 9 positions. Haskell-Luevano, C., Lim, S., Yuan, W., Cone, R.D., Hruby, V.J. Peptides (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. Melanocortin-5 receptor: a marker of human sebocyte differentiation. Zhang, L., Li, W.H., Anthonavage, M., Eisinger, M. Peptides (2006) [Pubmed]
  34. A major site of expression of the ets transcription factor Elf5 is epithelia of exocrine glands. Lapinskas, E.J., Palmer, J., Ricardo, S., Hertzog, P.J., Hammacher, A., Pritchard, M.A. Histochem. Cell Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. Origin of kallikrein in rat and human exocrine glands and kidney. Orstavik, T.B., Nustad, K., Brandtzaeg, P. Clin. Sci. (1979) [Pubmed]
  36. Abnormal expression and function of Fas ligand of lacrimal glands and peripheral blood in Sjögren's syndrome patients with enlarged exocrine glands. Tsubota, K., Fujita, H., Tadano, K., Onoda, N., Tsuzaka, K., Takeuchi, T. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
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