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Gene Review

AFMID  -  arylformamidase

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Arylformamidase, DKFZp686F03259, FKF, KF, KFA, ...
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Disease relevance of AFMID

  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Adult patients with advanced or metastatic androgen refractory prostate cancer received KF as an i.v. infusion over 1 hour, during five consecutive days every 3 weeks [1].
  • In line with previous reports, we show that KF caused rapid and potent cytotoxicity in the breast cancer cell lines SKBR3 and BT474, characterized by cytoplasmic swelling and DNA clumping [2].
  • The sensitivity to KF in a panel of human tumor cell lines derived from breast (SKBR3, BT474, and MCF7), vulval (A431), non-small-cell lung (H460, A549, SW1573, and H292), and hepatic (Skhep1, HepG2, and Hep3B) carcinomas positively correlated with ErbB3 (HER3) protein levels [2].
  • We investigated the cytotoxicity of KF in cell lines from breast, ovary, prostate and colon cancers, but focused on hepatoma cell lines, performing mechanistic studies in HepG2 (IC50 = 0.3 microM) and PLC/PRF/5C (IC50 = 5 microM) [3].

High impact information on AFMID


Chemical compound and disease context of AFMID


Biological context of AFMID

  • Recombinant casein kinase II phosphorylated the 63F and 63 delta KF fusion proteins in vitro but did not phosphorylate the 63 delta NF fusion protein, implying that phosphorylation occurred between amino acids 142 and 210 [5].
  • Flow cytometry analysis revealed that KF induced neither cell-cycle arrest nor apoptotic hypodiploid peak [6].

Anatomical context of AFMID

  • The pattern of cell permeability is similar to maitotoxin, another small cytotoxic peptide, but the differential effects on the cell membrane induced by KF in HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5C suggest specific interactions with membranes or proteins [3].
  • Confocal laser and electron microscopy revealed that KF-treated cells underwent a series of profound alterations including severe cytoplasmic swelling and vacuolization, dilation and vesiculation of the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondrial damage, and plasma membrane rupture [6].
  • Using mitochondrial (JC-1)- and lysosomal (LysoTracker Green, Acridine Orange)-specific fluorophores, we detected loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and of lysosomal integrity following KF treatment [6].
  • Under the conditions of this study, NT files used with the BF technique were significantly less likely to change canal curvature than either FR or KF files when instrumenting curved root canals [7].

Associations of AFMID with chemical compounds

  • Following KF exposure, HepG2 cells demonstrated profound ATP depletion, associated with cell swelling and cell blebbing, and increased permeability to propidium iodide (PI), annexin V (AV) and release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) [3].
  • A butyric acid analogue of KF was used as the internal standard [4].
  • Microbore reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) performed with mobile phases containing trifluoroacetic acid, an additive commonly used for separating peptides, resulted in substantial suppression of the signal for KF on ESI-MS/MS [4].
  • Results showed statistically less reduction in canal curvature with nickel-titanium (NT) files compared with either Flex-R (FR) (p < 0.05) or K-Flex (KF) files (p < 0.0021) [7].
  • Neither a general caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD-fmk) nor transcription or translation inhibitors (actinomycin D, cycloheximide) blocked KF action [6].


  1. Phase I clinical and pharmacokinetic study of kahalalide F in patients with advanced androgen refractory prostate cancer. Rademaker-Lakhai, J.M., Horenblas, S., Meinhardt, W., Stokvis, E., de Reijke, T.M., Jimeno, J.M., Lopez-Lazaro, L., Lopez Martin, J.A., Beijnen, J.H., Schellens, J.H. Clin. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Kahalalide F induces necrosis-like cell death that involves depletion of ErbB3 and inhibition of Akt signaling. Janmaat, M.L., Rodriguez, J.A., Jimeno, J., Kruyt, F.A., Giaccone, G. Mol. Pharmacol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. The mechanism of action of Kahalalide F: variable cell permeability in human hepatoma cell lines. Sewell, J.M., Mayer, I., Langdon, S.P., Smyth, J.F., Jodrell, D.I., Guichard, S.M. Eur. J. Cancer (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Quantitative analysis of the novel depsipeptide anticancer drug Kahalalide F in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography under basic conditions coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Stokvis, E., Rosing, H., López-Lázaro, L., Rodriguez, I., Jimeno, J.M., Supko, J.G., Schellens, J.H., Beijnen, J.H. Journal of mass spectrometry : JMS. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Phosphorylation and nuclear localization of the varicella-zoster virus gene 63 protein. Stevenson, D., Xue, M., Hay, J., Ruyechan, W.T. J. Virol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Kahalalide F, a new marine-derived compound, induces oncosis in human prostate and breast cancer cells. Suárez, Y., González, L., Cuadrado, A., Berciano, M., Lafarga, M., Muñoz, A. Mol. Cancer Ther. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. A comparison of maintenance of canal curvature using balanced-force instrumentation with three different file types. Royal, J.R., Donnelly, J.C. Journal of endodontics. (1995) [Pubmed]
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