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Gene Review

TAAR9  -  trace amine associated receptor 9...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: TA3, TAR3, TAR9, TRAR3, TaR-3, ...
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Disease relevance of TAAR9

  • Ultrastructural and histochemical differences in cell surface properties of strain-specific and nonstrain-specific TA3 adenocarcinoma cells [1].
  • A heat-stable DNA-binding protein with subunits of about 53 kilodaltons (kDal) was purified from two virally transformed human cell lines (Epstein-Barr virus-positive Raji and Namalwa) and two mouse tumor cell lines (methylcholanthrene-induced Meth A sarcoma and TA3 mammary carcinoma) [2].
  • Initiating events leading to the accumulation of malignant ascites in the peritoneal cavity were investigated in two syngeneic transplantable murine ascites-producing tumors, MOT mouse ovarian tumor and the TA3/St mammary carcinoma [3].
  • In our current study, we have demonstrated that overexpression of Ang-3 inhibits pulmonary metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma and TA3 mammary carcinoma (TA3) cells by inhibiting tumor angiogenesis and promoting apoptosis of the tumor cells [4].
  • Radioimmunodetection of murine mammary adenocarcinoma (TA3/Ha) lung and liver metastases with radioiodinated PNA [5].

High impact information on TAAR9

  • Transmission and scanning electron microscopy and histochemical and biochemical methods were used to investigate differences in cell structure and cell surface properties between the strain-specific TA3-St and nonstrain-specific TA3-Ha ascites sublines of the TA3 murine mammary adenocarcinoma [1].
  • Six of these, mouse Sarcoma 180, Ehrilich ascites carcinoma, mammary adenocarconoma (TA3), leukemia L1210, mouse kidney, and canine kidney cells, differed by up to 16-fold with respect to their sensitivity and were chosen for further study [6].
  • To study the biochemistry of processing of a soluble protein Ag by an APC, we investigated how 125I-labeled human insulin (HI) is processed in situ by TA3 mouse hybridoma B cells [7].
  • Antigen processing by TA3 cells was found to be unaffected by cycloheximide [8].
  • Endocytosis of Ia occurred in both TA3 and PEC, and internalized Ia reached a plateau level corresponding in size to the total intracellular Ia pool revealed by saponin treatment [8].

Biological context of TAAR9

  • Cell viability was not affected by the compounds except slightly by TA3 at 10 microM [9].
  • In experiment 1, T0 had no effect, whereas the other compounds decreased LDL TBARS production, but T3 and TA3 were less active than T4 and rT3 (IC50: 11.0 +/- 2.6 and 8.1 +/- 0.8 vs 1.4 +/- 0.5 and 0.9 +/- 0.3 microM respectively) [9].
  • A comparison of the kinetics of processing of 35S/3H-labelled biosynthetic human insulin and 125I-labelled commercial human insulin by murine TA3 hybridoma antigen presenting cells demonstrated that radiolabelled biosynthetic insulin was processed approximately 16 times slower than its iodinated counterpart [10].

Anatomical context of TAAR9


Associations of TAAR9 with chemical compounds

  • TA3/Ha cells produce a large cell surface glycoprotein called epiglycanin, which contains a high proportion of Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF) antigenic structures [5].
  • Treatment of rats with TA3 alone partially inhibited 51Cr-labelled rat blood PMNL migration into zymosan-activated serum (C5adesArg; ZAS), but not IL-1, or endotoxin [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] induced dermal inflammatory reactions [13].
  • A series of tricyclic hydroquinones, incorporating a carbonyl group in the ortho position relative to the phenol function, were tested as inhibitors of oxygen uptake against the TA3 mouse carcinoma cell line and its multidrug-resistant variant TA3-MTX-R [14].
  • Arsenite suppressed enzymatic activity within TA3 cells after 4 h exposure without affecting cell viability [15].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TAAR9

  • Fractionation of TA3 cells into their extracellular, plasma membrane-associated and intracellular compartments coupled with the use of HPLC enabled us to analyze several peptides derived from each compartment [7].
  • This murine system with organ-specific TA3/Ha metastatic variants also provides a model for evaluation of various other macromolecular probes for tumor radioimmunodetection of metastatic lesions [5].
  • Tissue biodistribution studies revealed that lung or liver containing the TA3/Ha metastatic variant nodules retained about 7 to 8 times as much of an i.v. dose of radioiodinated PNA as did controls, allowing for clear delineation of tumor-infiltrated lung or liver by gamma scintigraphy [5].
  • Autoradiography of liver sections with TA3/Ha metastatic lesions after 125I-PNA i.v. indicated an avid uptake throughout the viable tumor mass and FITC-PNA staining of these tissue sections readily identified the metastatic tumors under fluorescence microscopy [5].
  • Organ-specific lung and liver metastatic variants of the murine TA3/Ha mammary adenocarcinoma cell line were selected by sequential in vivo growth with intervening in vitro cell culture [5].


  1. Ultrastructural and histochemical differences in cell surface properties of strain-specific and nonstrain-specific TA3 adenocarcinoma cells. Miller, S.C., Hay, E.D., Codington, J.F. J. Cell Biol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  2. A 53-kilodalton protein common to chemically and virally transformed cells shows extensive sequence similarities between species. Jörnvall, H., Luka, J., Klein, G., Appella, E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1982) [Pubmed]
  3. Pathogenesis of malignant ascites formation: initiating events that lead to fluid accumulation. Nagy, J.A., Herzberg, K.T., Dvorak, J.M., Dvorak, H.F. Cancer Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Angiopoietin-3 inhibits pulmonary metastasis by inhibiting tumor angiogenesis. Xu, Y., Liu, Y.J., Yu, Q. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Radioimmunodetection of murine mammary adenocarcinoma (TA3/Ha) lung and liver metastases with radioiodinated PNA. Shysh, A., Eu, S.M., Noujaim, A.A., Suresh, M.R., Longenecker, B.M. Int. J. Cancer (1985) [Pubmed]
  6. Mechanism of natural resistance to N6-(delta2-isopentenyl)adenosine in cultured cells. Slocum, H.K., Hakala, M.T. Cancer Res. (1975) [Pubmed]
  7. Processing and presentation of insulin. II. Evidence for intracellular, plasma membrane-associated and extracellular degradation of human insulin by antigen-presenting B cells. Semple, J.W., Ellis, J., Delovitch, T.L. J. Immunol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. Mechanisms of antigen processing. Harding, C.V., Leyva-Cobian, F., Unanue, E.R. Immunol. Rev. (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Inhibition of in vitro macrophage-induced low density lipoprotein oxidation by thyroid compounds. Oziol, L., Faure, P., Bertrand, N., Chomard, P. J. Endocrinol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Purification and characterization of radiolabelled biosynthetic human insulin from Escherichia coli. Kinetics of processing by antigen presenting cells. Semple, J.W., Cockle, S.A., Delovitch, T.L. Mol. Immunol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  11. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibits antigen-induced T cell activation. Bhalla, A.K., Amento, E.P., Serog, B., Glimcher, L.H. J. Immunol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  12. Correlation of presentation of insulin with surface I-Ad and A alpha and A beta mRNA expression by cloned B lymphoma hybridoma variants. Bernard, N.F., Reid, P.C., Phillips, M.L., Delovitch, T.L. Immunol. Lett. (1988) [Pubmed]
  13. The contribution of LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18) and MAC-1 (CD11b/CD18) to the in vivo migration of polymorphonuclear leucocytes to inflammatory reactions in the rat. Issekutz, A.C., Issekutz, T.B. Immunology (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. Effects of 9,10-dihydroxy-4,4-dimethyl-5,8-dihydro-1(4H)-anthracenone derivatives on tumor cell respiration. Araya-Maturana, R., Cardona, W., Cassels, B.K., Delgado-Castro, T., Ferreira, J., Miranda, D., Pavani, M., Pessoa-Mahana, H., Soto-Delgado, J., Weiss-López, B. Bioorg. Med. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Immunosuppression by arsenic: a comparison of cathepsin L inhibition and apoptosis. Harrison, M.T., McCoy, K.L. Int. Immunopharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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