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Gene Review

Mdfi  -  MyoD family inhibitor

Mus musculus

Synonyms: I-mf, I-mfa, Myogenic repressor I-mf
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Psychiatry related information on Mdfi

  • This mechanism of active transcriptional repression distinguishes ZEB from other negative regulators of myogenesis (Id, Twist and I-mfa) that inhibit muscle differentiation by simply binding and inactivating myogenic factors [1].

High impact information on Mdfi

  • I-mf associates with MyoD family members and retains them in the cytoplasm by masking their nuclear localization signals [2].
  • We postulate that I-mf plays an important role in the patterning of the somite early in development [2].
  • In contrast, I-mfa did not interfere with the activity of the bHLH protein Hand1, a positive regulator of giant cell differentiation [3].
  • I-mfa interacted with the bHLH protein Mash2, a negative regulator of trophoblast giant cell formation, and inhibited its transcriptional activity in cell culture [3].
  • Our results indicate that I-mfa plays an important role in trophoblast and chondrogenic differentiation by negatively regulating a subset of lineage-restricted bHLH proteins [3].

Biological context of Mdfi


Anatomical context of Mdfi


Physical interactions of Mdfi


Regulatory relationships of Mdfi


Other interactions of Mdfi

  • A search for proteins binding to the amino terminal domain of Zic2 revealed that inhibitor of MyoD family (I-mfa) protein, which has been identified as a repressor of myogenic helix-loop-helix class transcription factors, can physically interact with the amino terminal domain [5].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Mdfi

  • Pipette perfusion of purified recombinant I-mfa rescues the effect of I-mfa knock-down on store-operated conductance [4].
  • Western blot analysis indicated that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) increased the I-mfa protein levels severalfold in MC3T3E1 cells [6].


  1. ZEB, a vertebrate homolog of Drosophila Zfh-1, is a negative regulator of muscle differentiation. Postigo, A.A., Dean, D.C. EMBO J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. I-mf, a novel myogenic repressor, interacts with members of the MyoD family. Chen, C.M., Kraut, N., Groudine, M., Weintraub, H. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Requirement of the mouse I-mfa gene for placental development and skeletal patterning. Kraut, N., Snider, L., Chen, C.M., Tapscott, S.J., Groudine, M. EMBO J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Inhibitor of myogenic family, a novel suppressor of store-operated currents through an interaction with TRPC1. Ma, R., Rundle, D., Jacks, J., Koch, M., Downs, T., Tsiokas, L. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Myogenic repressor I-mfa interferes with the function of Zic family proteins. Mizugishi, K., Hatayama, M., Tohmonda, T., Ogawa, M., Inoue, T., Mikoshiba, K., Aruga, J. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Vitamin D(3) enhances the expression of I-mfa, an inhibitor of the MyoD family, in osteoblasts. Tsuji, K., Kraut, N., Groudine, M., Noda, M. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Beta-catenin regulates myogenesis by relieving I-mfa-mediated suppression of myogenic regulatory factors in P19 cells. Pan, W., Jia, Y., Wang, J., Tao, D., Gan, X., Tsiokas, L., Jing, N., Wu, D., Li, L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
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