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Gene Review

Ctnnb1  -  catenin (cadherin associated protein), beta 1

Mus musculus

Synonyms: Beta-catenin, Bfc, Catenin beta-1, Catnb, Mesc, ...
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Disease relevance of Ctnnb1


Psychiatry related information on Ctnnb1

  • Although an association between the product of the familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) gene, presenilin 1 (PS1), and beta-catenin has been reported recently, the cellular consequences of this interaction are unknown [6].
  • In addition, exploratory behavior by mice resulted in a similar cleavage of beta-catenin, as well as activation of the Tcf signaling pathway, in hippocampal neurons [7].

High impact information on Ctnnb1

  • The PTEN-Akt pathway probably governs stem cell activation by helping control nuclear localization of the Wnt pathway effector beta-catenin [8].
  • Our observations show that intestinal polyposis is initiated by PTEN-deficient ISCs that undergo excessive proliferation driven by Akt activation and nuclear localization of beta-catenin [8].
  • Alpha-catenin is a molecular switch that binds E-cadherin-beta-catenin and regulates actin-filament assembly [9].
  • Prevailing dogma is that cadherins are linked to the actin cytoskeleton through beta-catenin and alpha-catenin, although the quaternary complex has never been demonstrated [10].
  • Monomeric alpha-catenin binds more strongly to E-cadherin-beta-catenin, whereas the dimer preferentially binds actin filaments [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Ctnnb1


Biological context of Ctnnb1


Anatomical context of Ctnnb1


Associations of Ctnnb1 with chemical compounds

  • Beta-catenin detected in Triton X-100-soluble (cytosolic) cellular fractions was enriched 4.3 +/- 0.9 (SD)-fold, whereas a modest decrease of 0.9 +/- 0.09 (SD)-fold was recorded in Triton X-100-insoluble (cytoskeletal) fractions [2].
  • In contrast to the effects of Wnt-1, v-Src does not modulate the uncomplexed population of beta-catenin. p120(cas) is phosphorylated on tyrosine by v-Src, and this is accompanied by a significant decrease in the level of uncomplexed p120(cas) as well as a change in behavior of p120(cas) upon biochemical fractionation [22].
  • Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Inactivation and Stabilization of beta-Catenin Induce Nephron Differentiation in Isolated Mouse and Rat Kidney Mesenchymes [23].
  • Direct metabolic regulation of beta-catenin activity by the p85alpha regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase [24].
  • This regulation occurs at the level of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), a serine/threonine kinase that marks beta-catenin to enter a destruction pathway [24].
  • Conditions that increased basal beta-catenin levels, such as lithium chloride treatment or repression of caveolin-1 expression, were shown to enhance the effects of strain [25].

Physical interactions of Ctnnb1


Enzymatic interactions of Ctnnb1


Co-localisations of Ctnnb1


Regulatory relationships of Ctnnb1


Other interactions of Ctnnb1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ctnnb1


  1. Zonal Gene Expression in Mouse Liver Resembles Expression Patterns of Ha-ras and {beta}-Catenin Mutated Hepatomas. Braeuning, A., Ittrich, C., Köhle, C., Buchmann, A., Schwarz, M. Drug Metab. Dispos. (2007) [Pubmed]
  2. Increased beta-catenin expression and nuclear translocation accompany cellular hyperproliferation in vivo. Sellin, J.H., Umar, S., Xiao, J., Morris, A.P. Cancer Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. The threshold level of adenomatous polyposis coli protein for mouse intestinal tumorigenesis. Li, Q., Ishikawa, T.O., Oshima, M., Taketo, M.M. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Beta-catenin stabilization stalls the transition from double-positive to single-positive stage and predisposes thymocytes to malignant transformation. Guo, Z., Dose, M., Kovalovsky, D., Chang, R., O'Neil, J., Look, A.T., von Boehmer, H., Khazaie, K., Gounari, F. Blood (2007) [Pubmed]
  5. alphaE-catenin is not a significant regulator of beta-catenin signaling in the developing mammalian brain. Lien, W.H., Klezovitch, O., Null, M., Vasioukhin, V. J. Cell. Sci. (2008) [Pubmed]
  6. Presenilin 1 facilitates the constitutive turnover of beta-catenin: differential activity of Alzheimer's disease-linked PS1 mutants in the beta-catenin-signaling pathway. Kang, D.E., Soriano, S., Frosch, M.P., Collins, T., Naruse, S., Sisodia, S.S., Leibowitz, G., Levine, F., Koo, E.H. J. Neurosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. NMDA-Receptor Activation Induces Calpain-Mediated beta-Catenin Cleavages for Triggering Gene Expression. Abe, K., Takeichi, M. Neuron (2007) [Pubmed]
  8. PTEN-deficient intestinal stem cells initiate intestinal polyposis. He, X.C., Yin, T., Grindley, J.C., Tian, Q., Sato, T., Tao, W.A., Dirisina, R., Porter-Westpfahl, K.S., Hembree, M., Johnson, T., Wiedemann, L.M., Barrett, T.A., Hood, L., Wu, H., Li, L. Nat. Genet. (2007) [Pubmed]
  9. Alpha-catenin is a molecular switch that binds E-cadherin-beta-catenin and regulates actin-filament assembly. Drees, F., Pokutta, S., Yamada, S., Nelson, W.J., Weis, W.I. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Deconstructing the cadherin-catenin-actin complex. Yamada, S., Pokutta, S., Drees, F., Weis, W.I., Nelson, W.J. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Frequent mutations of the Trp53, Hras1 and beta-catenin (Catnb) genes in 1,3-butadiene-induced mammary adenocarcinomas in B6C3F1 mice. Zhuang, S.M., Wiseman, R.W., Söderkvist, P. Oncogene (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Carnosol inhibits beta-catenin tyrosine phosphorylation and prevents adenoma formation in the C57BL/6J/Min/+ (Min/+) mouse. Moran, A.E., Carothers, A.M., Weyant, M.J., Redston, M., Bertagnolli, M.M. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Activation of the beta-catenin/Lef-Tcf pathway is obligate for formation of primitive endoderm by mouse F9 totipotent teratocarcinoma cells in response to retinoic acid. Liu, T., Lee, Y.N., Malbon, C.C., Wang, H.Y. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Chemical anoxia of tubular cells induces activation of c-Src and its translocation to the zonula adherens. Sinha, D., Wang, Z., Price, V.R., Schwartz, J.H., Lieberthal, W. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Colonic adenocarcinomas rapidly induced by the combined treatment with 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine and dextran sodium sulfate in male ICR mice possess beta-catenin gene mutations and increases immunoreactivity for beta-catenin, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Tanaka, T., Suzuki, R., Kohno, H., Sugie, S., Takahashi, M., Wakabayashi, K. Carcinogenesis (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Beta-catenin overexpression in the mouse brain phenocopies lithium-sensitive behaviors. Gould, T.D., Einat, H., O'Donnell, K.C., Picchini, A.M., Schloesser, R.J., Manji, H.K. Neuropsychopharmacology (2007) [Pubmed]
  17. Three-dimensional structure of the armadillo repeat region of beta-catenin. Huber, A.H., Nelson, W.J., Weis, W.I. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. beta-Catenin controls hair follicle morphogenesis and stem cell differentiation in the skin. Huelsken, J., Vogel, R., Erdmann, B., Cotsarelis, G., Birchmeier, W. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Apc modulates embryonic stem-cell differentiation by controlling the dosage of beta-catenin signaling. Kielman, M.F., Rindapää, M., Gaspar, C., van Poppel, N., Breukel, C., van Leeuwen, S., Taketo, M.M., Roberts, S., Smits, R., Fodde, R. Nat. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Requirement for beta-catenin in anterior-posterior axis formation in mice. Huelsken, J., Vogel, R., Brinkmann, V., Erdmann, B., Birchmeier, C., Birchmeier, W. J. Cell Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. N-cadherin-dependent cell-cell contact regulates Rho GTPases and beta-catenin localization in mouse C2C12 myoblasts. Charrasse, S., Meriane, M., Comunale, F., Blangy, A., Gauthier-Rouvière, C. J. Cell Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Regulation of complexed and free catenin pools by distinct mechanisms. Differential effects of Wnt-1 and v-Src. Papkoff, J. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  23. Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Inactivation and Stabilization of beta-Catenin Induce Nephron Differentiation in Isolated Mouse and Rat Kidney Mesenchymes. Kuure, S., Popsueva, A., Jakobson, M., Sainio, K., Sariola, H. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  24. Direct metabolic regulation of beta-catenin activity by the p85alpha regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase. Espada, J., Peinado, H., Esteller, M., Cano, A. Exp. Cell Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Beta-catenin levels influence rapid mechanical responses in osteoblasts. Case, N., Ma, M., Sen, B., Xie, Z., Gross, T.S., Rubin, J. J. Biol. Chem. (2008) [Pubmed]
  26. Gadd45a regulates matrix metalloproteinases by suppressing DeltaNp63alpha and beta-catenin via p38 MAP kinase and APC complex activation. Hildesheim, J., Belova, G.I., Tyner, S.D., Zhou, X., Vardanian, L., Fornace, A.J. Oncogene (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. Wnt signaling is required for thymocyte development and activates Tcf-1 mediated transcription. Staal, F.J., Meeldijk, J., Moerer, P., Jay, P., van de Weerdt, B.C., Vainio, S., Nolan, G.P., Clevers, H. Eur. J. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. The vertebrate adhesive junction proteins beta-catenin and plakoglobin and the Drosophila segment polarity gene armadillo form a multigene family with similar properties. Peifer, M., McCrea, P.D., Green, K.J., Wieschaus, E., Gumbiner, B.M. J. Cell Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  29. Interactions between Sox9 and beta-catenin control chondrocyte differentiation. Akiyama, H., Lyons, J.P., Mori-Akiyama, Y., Yang, X., Zhang, R., Zhang, Z., Deng, J.M., Taketo, M.M., Nakamura, T., Behringer, R.R., McCrea, P.D., de Crombrugghe, B. Genes Dev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. The frizzled-related sFRP2 gene is a target of thyroid hormone receptor alpha1 and activates beta-catenin signaling in mouse intestine. Kress, E., Rezza, A., Nadjar, J., Samarut, J., Plateroti, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2009) [Pubmed]
  31. Sox9 inhibits Wnt signaling by promoting beta-catenin phosphorylation in the nucleus. Topol, L., Chen, W., Song, H., Day, T.F., Yang, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (2009) [Pubmed]
  32. Beta-catenin is a major tyrosine-phosphorylated protein during mouse oocyte maturation and preimplantation development. Ohsugi, M., Butz, S., Kemler, R. Dev. Dyn. (1999) [Pubmed]
  33. Inhibitory effect of a presenilin 1 mutation on the Wnt signalling pathway by enhancement of beta-catenin phosphorylation. Kawamura, Y., Kikuchi, A., Takada, R., Takada, S., Sudoh, S., Shibamoto, S., Yanagisawa, K., Komano, H. Eur. J. Biochem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  34. Transforming growth factor-beta stimulates cyclin D1 expression through activation of beta-catenin signaling in chondrocytes. Li, T.F., Chen, D., Wu, Q., Chen, M., Sheu, T.J., Schwarz, E.M., Drissi, H., Zuscik, M., O'Keefe, R.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  35. Epithelial mesenchymal transition by c-Fos estrogen receptor activation involves nuclear translocation of beta-catenin and upregulation of beta-catenin/lymphoid enhancer binding factor-1 transcriptional activity. Eger, A., Stockinger, A., Schaffhauser, B., Beug, H., Foisner, R. J. Cell Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  36. Cdx4 is a direct target of the canonical Wnt pathway. Pilon, N., Oh, K., Sylvestre, J.R., Bouchard, N., Savory, J., Lohnes, D. Dev. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  37. The tumor suppressor protein APC colocalizes with beta-catenin in the colon epithelial cells. Senda, T., Miyashiro, I., Matsumine, A., Baeg, G.H., Monden, T., Kobayashil, S., Monden, M., Toyoshima, K., Akiyama, T. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1996) [Pubmed]
  38. Presenilin 1 negatively regulates beta-catenin/T cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor-1 signaling independently of beta-amyloid precursor protein and notch processing. Soriano, S., Kang, D.E., Fu, M., Pestell, R., Chevallier, N., Zheng, H., Koo, E.H. J. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  39. Functional significance of type 1 insulin-like growth factor-mediated nuclear translocation of the insulin receptor substrate-1 and beta-catenin. Chen, J., Wu, A., Sun, H., Drakas, R., Garofalo, C., Cascio, S., Surmacz, E., Baserga, R. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  40. Smad4 and beta-catenin co-activators functionally interact with lymphoid-enhancing factor to regulate graded expression of Msx2. Hussein, S.M., Duff, E.K., Sirard, C. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  41. Wt1 negatively regulates beta-catenin signaling during testis development. Chang, H., Gao, F., Guillou, F., Taketo, M.M., Huff, V., Behringer, R.R. Development (2008) [Pubmed]
  42. Identification of a Wnt/Dvl/beta-Catenin --> Pitx2 pathway mediating cell-type-specific proliferation during development. Kioussi, C., Briata, P., Baek, S.H., Rose, D.W., Hamblet, N.S., Herman, T., Ohgi, K.A., Lin, C., Gleiberman, A., Wang, J., Brault, V., Ruiz-Lozano, P., Nguyen, H.D., Kemler, R., Glass, C.K., Wynshaw-Boris, A., Rosenfeld, M.G. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  43. Tumor progression induced by the loss of E-cadherin independent of beta-catenin/Tcf-mediated Wnt signaling. Herzig, M., Savarese, F., Novatchkova, M., Semb, H., Christofori, G. Oncogene (2007) [Pubmed]
  44. IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 regulates beta-catenin at membrane ruffles and its role in macropinocytosis of N-cadherin and adenomatous polyposis coli. Sharma, M., Henderson, B.R. J. Biol. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  45. Wnt3a/beta-catenin signaling controls posterior body development by coordinating mesoderm formation and segmentation. Dunty, W.C., Biris, K.K., Chalamalasetty, R.B., Taketo, M.M., Lewandoski, M., Yamaguchi, T.P. Development (2008) [Pubmed]
  46. Liver-specific loss of beta-catenin results in delayed hepatocyte proliferation after partial hepatectomy. Sekine, S., Gutiérrez, P.J., Lan, B.Y., Feng, S., Hebrok, M. Hepatology (2007) [Pubmed]
  47. Defects in cell adhesion and the visceral endoderm following ablation of nonmuscle myosin heavy chain II-A in mice. Conti, M.A., Even-Ram, S., Liu, C., Yamada, K.M., Adelstein, R.S. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  48. Wnt-dependent beta-catenin signaling is activated after unilateral ureteral obstruction, and recombinant secreted frizzled-related protein 4 alters the progression of renal fibrosis. Surendran, K., Schiavi, S., Hruska, K.A. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  49. Growth factors regulate beta-catenin-mediated TCF-dependent transcriptional activation in fibroblasts during the proliferative phase of wound healing. Cheon, S.S., Nadesan, P., Poon, R., Alman, B.A. Exp. Cell Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  50. PCB 153, a non-dioxin-like tumor promoter, selects for beta-catenin (Catnb)-mutated mouse liver tumors. Strathmann, J., Schwarz, M., Tharappel, J.C., Glauert, H.P., Spear, B.T., Robertson, L.W., Appel, K.E., Buchmann, A. Toxicol. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
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