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Gene Review

DTX1  -  deltex 1, E3 ubiquitin ligase

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Deltex1, E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase DTX1, Protein deltex-1, hDTX1, hDx-1
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Disease relevance of DTX1

  • The DTX1 gene maps to chromosomal region 12q24 in the vicinity of the Noonan syndrome critical region [1].
  • Jagged 2, Delta-like-1, Manic Fringe, and TSL1 were expressed more frequently in adenocarcinomas whereas Deltex, Mastermind, and Radical Fringe were more frequent in adenomas [2].
  • Chemical analysis revealed that the DST okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1) were present each one in one sample, but only a minor part of the total toxicity could be attributed to these toxions [3].

Psychiatry related information on DTX1

  • Against a background of consistent gene expression, several regulatory genes show marked differences between fetal and adult expression profiles, including those encoding two basic helix-loop-helix antagonist Id factors, the Ets family factor SpiB and the Notch target gene Deltex1 [4].

High impact information on DTX1

  • Both human and Drosophila deltex bind to Notch across species and carry putative SH3-binding domains [5].
  • Sequence profile analysis was used to detect a conserved globular domain in several proteins including deltex, Trip12 and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase homologs [6].
  • T Cells Develop Normally in the Absence of both Deltex1 and Deltex2 [7].
  • In contrast, Deltex1 did not decrease MZB cell numbers [8].
  • Notch1 confers thymocytes a resistance to GC-induced apoptosis through Deltex1 by blocking the recruitment of p300 to the SRG3 promoter [9].

Biological context of DTX1

  • DTX1 encodes a 2.5-kb cDNA that is composed of nine exons [1].
  • Deduced amino acid sequences of these four cDNAs showed a high degree of similarity to Drosophila Deltex and its human homolog, DTX1 throughout their lengths, even though they possess distinct structural features [10].
  • The expression pattern of a novel Deltex homologue during chicken embryogenesis [11].
  • Determination of diarrhetic shellfish-poisoning (DSP) toxins, okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1) and pectenotoxin-6 (PTX6) was carried out by liquid chromatography (LC) followed by on-line atmospheric pressure electrospray ionization-mass spectrometric (ESI-MS) detection with a heated capillary interface [12].
  • Moreover, enforced expression of Deltex1 restored double-positive (DP) thymocyte survival from the GC-induced apoptosis [9].

Anatomical context of DTX1


Associations of DTX1 with chemical compounds

  • Okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1) and esterified toxins of OA and DTX1 in D. fortii and scallop extracts were determined by liquid chromatography fluorescence detection (LC-FLD) as their 9-anthryldiazomethane (ADAM) derivatives [16].
  • A rapid and simple method for confirmation of the diarrhetic shellfish poisons (DSP): okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1) and dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX-2) using fluorescence detection following derivatization with 9-chloromethylanthracene, has been established as an alternate to LC/MS [17].
  • Using 1-bromoacetylpyrene (BAP), as a precolumn derivatisation reagent, the diarrhetic shellfish toxins, okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1) and DTX-2, were determined by HPLC with fluorimetric detection [18].
  • OA and DTX-1 concentrations, pigment content and changes in nitrate and phosphate concentrations in the culture media were followed during growth of one strain of P. lima in batch culture [19].
  • Collision-induced-dissociation (CID) ion mass spectra of the protonated molecule, [M + H]+, at m/z 805 for OA, DTX-2, and DTX-2B and at m/z 819 for DTX-1, were obtained in MS-MS experiments to identify 2 diagnostic fragment ions for each analyte that could be used for selected-reaction-monitoring (SRM) micro-LC-MS-MS analysis [14].

Other interactions of DTX1

  • Consistent with this idea, BBAP and DTX1 associate via their unique N termini, resulting in enhanced self-ubiquitination [20].
  • The human Deltex (DTX1) gene encodes a cytoplasmic protein that functions as a positive regulator of the Notch signaling pathway [1].
  • The cDtx2 sequence showed higher homology to KIAA0937 protein (92% identical) than to DTX1 (68% identical). cDtx2 is expressed widely in the epiblast at stage 4 [11].
  • Cross-reactivity was observed between the antibodies and the DTX-1 and the DTX-2, allowing the detection of the different toxins in a single analysis [21].
  • Among them, Okadaic acid (OA), Dinophysistoxin 1 (DTX-1, 35-methyl OA), Dinophysistoxin 2 (DTX-2, OA isomers) and Dinophysistoxin 3 (DTX-3, 7-O-acyl-35-methyl OA), all of which have free carboxilic groups [22].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of DTX1


  1. Chromosomal localization, genomic characterization, and mapping to the Noonan syndrome critical region of the human Deltex (DTX1) gene. Lee, L., Dowhanick-Morrissette, J., Katz, A., Jukofsky, L., Krantz, I.D. Hum. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. The Notch pathway in ovarian carcinomas and adenomas. Hopfer, O., Zwahlen, D., Fey, M.F., Aebi, S. Br. J. Cancer (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Oral toxicity in mice of algal toxins from the diarrheic shellfish toxin (DST) complex and associated toxins. Aune, T., Stabell, O.B., Nordstoga, K., Tjøtta, K. Journal of natural toxins. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Progression of regulatory gene expression states in fetal and adult pro-T-cell development. David-Fung, E.S., Yui, M.A., Morales, M., Wang, H., Taghon, T., Diamond, R.A., Rothenberg, E.V. Immunol. Rev. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Human deltex is a conserved regulator of Notch signalling. Matsuno, K., Eastman, D., Mitsiades, T., Quinn, A.M., Carcanciu, M.L., Ordentlich, P., Kadesch, T., Artavanis-Tsakonas, S. Nat. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. The WWE domain: a common interaction module in protein ubiquitination and ADP ribosylation. Aravind, L. Trends Biochem. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. T Cells Develop Normally in the Absence of both Deltex1 and Deltex2. Lehar, S.M., Bevan, M.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Mastermind critically regulates Notch-mediated lymphoid cell fate decisions. Maillard, I., Weng, A.P., Carpenter, A.C., Rodriguez, C.G., Sai, H., Xu, L., Allman, D., Aster, J.C., Pear, W.S. Blood (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Notch1 confers thymocytes a resistance to GC-induced apoptosis through Deltex1 by blocking the recruitment of p300 to the SRG3 promoter. Jang, J., Choi, Y.I., Choi, J., Lee, K.Y., Chung, H., Jeon, S.H., Seong, R.H. Cell Death Differ. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Murine homologs of deltex define a novel gene family involved in vertebrate Notch signaling and neurogenesis. Kishi, N., Tang, Z., Maeda, Y., Hirai, A., Mo, R., Ito, M., Suzuki, S., Nakao, K., Kinoshita, T., Kadesch, T., Hui, C., Artavanis-Tsakonas, S., Okano, H., Matsuno, K. Int. J. Dev. Neurosci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. The expression pattern of a novel Deltex homologue during chicken embryogenesis. Frolova, E., Beebe, D. Mech. Dev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of the diarrhetic shellfish-poisoning toxins okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-1 and pectenotoxin-6 in bivalves. Suzuki, T., Yasumoto, T. Journal of chromatography. A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Specific over-expression of deltex and a new Kelch-like protein in human germinal center B cells. Gupta-Rossi, N., Storck, S., Griebel, P.J., Reynaud, C.A., Weill, J.C., Dahan, A. Mol. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Determination of diarrheic shellfish toxins in mussels by microliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Draisci, R., Lucentini, L., Giannetti, L., Boria, P., James, K.J., Furey, A., Gillman, M., Kelly, S.S. Journal of AOAC International. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Evaluation of the use of two human cell lines for okadaic acid and DTX-1 determination by cytotoxicity assays and damage characterization. Oteri, G., Stammati, A., Zampaglioni, F., Zucco, F. Nat. Toxins (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Direct evidence of transformation of dinophysistoxin-1 to 7-O-acyl-dinophysistoxin-1 (dinophysistoxin-3) in the scallop Patinopecten yessoensis. Suzuki, T., Ota, H., Yamasaki, M. Toxicon (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Confirmation of okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-1 and dinophysistoxin-2 in shellfish as their anthrylmethyl derivatives using UV radiation. Rawn, D.F., Ménard, C., Niedzwiadek, B., Lewis, D., Lau, B.P., Delauney-Bertoncini, N., Hennion, M.C., Lawrence, J.F. Journal of chromatography. A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Isolation of dinophysistoxin-2 and the high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of diarrhetic shellfish toxins using derivatisation with 1-bromoacetylpyrene. Kelly, S.S., Bishop, A.G., Carmody, E.P., James, K.J. Journal of chromatography. A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Morphology, toxin composition and pigment content of Prorocentrum lima strains isolated from a coastal lagoon in southern UK. Nascimento, S.M., Purdie, D.A., Morris, S. Toxicon (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. The BAL-binding protein BBAP and related Deltex family members exhibit ubiquitin-protein isopeptide ligase activity. Takeyama, K., Aguiar, R.C., Gu, L., He, C., Freeman, G.J., Kutok, J.L., Aster, J.C., Shipp, M.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Use of immunoaffinity columns for clean-up of diarrhetic toxins (okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins) extracts from shellfish prior to their analysis by HPLC/fluorimetry. Puech, L., Dragacci, S., Gleizes, E., Fremy, J.M. Food additives and contaminants. (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. Quantitation of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins in Chilean mussel using pyrenyldiazomethane as fluorescent labeling reagent. García, C., Pereira, P., Valle, L., Lagos, N. Biol. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Survey of the distribution of red tide toxins (okadaic acid and dinophytoxin-1) in the Dalian Bay sea area of China by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography. Li, D., Sun, L., Chen, Z., He, X., Lin, B. Electrophoresis (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Diarrhoeic shellfish toxins in Adriatic Sea mussels evaluated by an ELISA method. Tubaro, A., Sosa, S., Bruno, M., Gucci, P.M., Volterra, L., Della Loggia, R. Toxicon (1992) [Pubmed]
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