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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Shellfish


Psychiatry related information on Shellfish


High impact information on Shellfish

  • In sitosterolemia, a rare autosomal recessive disorder, affected individuals hyperabsorb not only cholesterol but also all other sterols, including plant and shellfish sterols from the intestine [8].
  • Consumption of shellfish (a rich source of iodine) seemed to increase the risk of follicular thyroid cancer, whereas consumption of goitrogen-containing vegetables appeared to reduce risk of total thyroid cancer, possibly because of their cruciferous nature [9].
  • In order to determine whether this abnormal metabolism also involved other sterols, a patient with sitosterolemia was fed a diet high in shellfish that contain significant quantities of noncholesterol sterols, some of which are less well absorbed than cholesterol in humans [10].
  • This enhanced absorption was associated with an increased plasma total shellfish sterol level (13.1 mg/dl vs. 1.9 +/- 0.7 mg/dl in normals) [10].
  • The normal controls concentrated the shellfish sterols in bile 6.3 +/- 1.7-fold relative to the plasma shellfish sterol concentration whereas the study subject was only able to concentrate them 2.1-fold [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Shellfish

  • In Florida (USA), numerous cases of human ciguatera fish poisoning, as well as neurotoxic shellfish poisoning following consumption of local seafood products, have been reported [11].
  • Density of total and pathogenic (tdh+) Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Atlantic and Gulf coast molluscan shellfish at harvest [12].
  • The inclusion of a hydrolytic step of the hexane extract in the general procedure is suggested in order to monitor the contribution of non-polar diarrhoetic shellfish poisons (DSPs) to the total DSP shellfish toxicity [13].
  • On the basis of pathological studies of the Minamata disease induced by consumption of large amounts of fish and shellfish contaminated with methylmercury, the neuropathological and metal-histochemical changes in the human body were discussed [14].
  • A significant number have severe allergic reactions to foods and substances including: peanuts, tree nuts (almonds, walnuts, hazelnuts and brazil nuts); sesame; milk; eggs; shellfish; fish; fresh fruit; insect venom; latex; and prescribed drugs [15].

Biological context of Shellfish


Anatomical context of Shellfish


Associations of Shellfish with chemical compounds

  • The five shellfish sterols (22-dehydrocholesterol, 24-methylene cholesterol, brassicasterol, isofucosterol, and a C-26 sterol) increased from 0.3% to a total of 5.2% (p less than 0.001) of total sterols [24].
  • An unusual isomer of domoic acid (1), isodomoic acid C (2), has been found in New Zealand shellfish contaminated by amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) toxins and was shown to be produced by a local strain of the pennate diatom Pseudo-nitzschia australis [25].
  • Domoic acid, a naturally occurring kainoid, has been responsible for several outbreaks of fatal poisoning after shellfish ingestion, and we examined its neurotoxic mechanism in cultured murine cortical neurones [26].
  • Blood organic/methyl mercury reflects methyl mercury intake from fish and shellfish as determined from a methyl mercury exposure parameter based on 24-hr dietary recall, 30-day food frequency, and mean concentrations of mercury in the fish/shellfish species reported as consumed (multiple correlation coefficient > 0.5) [27].
  • Results obtained indicate that the attachment of virus to mucus is primarily ionic and involves the binding of viral particles to sulfate radicals on the mucopolysaccharide moiety of shellfish mucus [28].

Gene context of Shellfish

  • Studies in patients with sitosterolemia have identified 2 major new transporters, ABCG5 and ABCG8, that play a pivotal role in the regulation of intestinal cholesterol, plant, and shellfish absorption [29].
  • Good reproducibility data were also achieved with %RSD values (N = 3) ranging from 3.15% (0.56 microg DTX2/ml) to 5.71% (0.14 microg DTX2/ml), for shellfish extracts [30].
  • Since 7-O-acyl-derivative dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-3) was the only compound associated to DSP toxins detected in the shellfish samples, an explanation for the diarrheic symptoms in the intoxicated patients would be the metabolic transformation of DTX-3 into DTX-1 [31].
  • The HPLC-FLD and HPLC-MS analysis showed only the presence of DTX-3 as the only compound associated to DSP toxins in the contaminated shellfish samples [31].
  • Letter: Fish and shellfish hygiene [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Shellfish


  1. The reactivity of desmosterol and other shellfish- and xanthomatosis-associated sterols in the macrophage sterol esterification reaction. Tabas, I., Feinmark, S.J., Beatini, N. J. Clin. Invest. (1989) [Pubmed]
  2. Concentration and detection of hepatitis A virus and rotavirus from shellfish by hybridization tests. Zhou, Y.J., Estes, M.K., Jiang, X., Metcalf, T.G. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. Genetic analysis of aquareoviruses using RNA-RNA blot hybridization. Lupiani, B., Hetrick, F.M., Samal, S.K. Virology (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Geographical segregation of the neurotoxin-producing cyanobacterium Anabaena circinalis. Beltran, E.C., Neilan, B.A. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. A theoretical discourse on the pharmacology of toxic marine ingestions. Sims, J.K. Annals of emergency medicine. (1987) [Pubmed]
  6. Electroencephalographic, behavioral, and c-fos responses to acute domoic acid exposure. Scallet, A.C., Kowalke, P.K., Rountree, R.L., Thorn, B.T., Binienda, Z.K. Neurotoxicology and teratology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Domoic acid-induced neurodegeneration resulting in memory loss is mediated by Ca2+ overload and inhibition of Ca2+ + calmodulin-stimulated adenylate cyclase in rat brain (review). Nijjar, M.S., Nijjar, S.S. Int. J. Mol. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Identification of a gene, ABCG5, important in the regulation of dietary cholesterol absorption. Lee, M.H., Lu, K., Hazard, S., Yu, H., Shulenin, S., Hidaka, H., Kojima, H., Allikmets, R., Sakuma, N., Pegoraro, R., Srivastava, A.K., Salen, G., Dean, M., Patel, S.B. Nat. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. A population-based case-control study of thyroid cancer. Ron, E., Kleinerman, R.A., Boice, J.D., LiVolsi, V.A., Flannery, J.T., Fraumeni, J.F. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1987) [Pubmed]
  10. Abnormal metabolism of shellfish sterols in a patient with sitosterolemia and xanthomatosis. Gregg, R.E., Connor, W.E., Lin, D.S., Brewer, H.B. J. Clin. Invest. (1986) [Pubmed]
  11. Use of two detection methods to discriminate ciguatoxins from brevetoxins: application to great barracuda from Florida Keys. Dechraoui, M.Y., Tiedeken, J.A., Persad, R., Wang, Z., Granade, H.R., Dickey, R.W., Ramsdell, J.S. Toxicon (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Density of total and pathogenic (tdh+) Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Atlantic and Gulf coast molluscan shellfish at harvest. Cook, D.W., Bowers, J.C., DePaola, A. J. Food Prot. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Detection of okadaic acid esters in the hexane extracts of Spanish mussels. Fernández, M.L., Míguez, A., Cacho, E., Martínez, A. Toxicon (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Pathology of Minamata disease. With special reference to its pathogenesis. Takeuchi, T. Acta Pathol. Jpn. (1982) [Pubmed]
  15. The Anaphylaxis Campaign: Youth Workshop Programme. Percival, J. Nursing times. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Detection of hepatitis A virus in Mercenaria mercenaria by coupled reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction. Goswami, B.B., Koch, W.H., Cebula, T.A. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Detection of genotoxicity of polluted sea water using shellfish and the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCE) assay: a preliminary study. Sasaki, Y.F., Izumiyama, F., Nishidate, E., Ishibashi, S., Tsuda, S., Matsusaka, N., Asano, N., Saotome, K., Sofuni, T., Hayashi, M. Mutat. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Bioavailability of cadmium from shellfish and mixed diet in women. Vahter, M., Berglund, M., Nermell, B., Akesson, A. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Rift Valley lake fish and shellfish provided brain-specific nutrition for early Homo. Broadhurst, C.L., Cunnane, S.C., Crawford, M.A. Br. J. Nutr. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Single active site mechanism of rabbit liver acid alpha-glucosidase. Onodera, S., Matsui, H., Chiba, S. J. Biochem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  21. Detection of infectious Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and cockles (Cerastoderma edule). Gomez-Bautista, M., Ortega-Mora, L.M., Tabares, E., Lopez-Rodas, V., Costas, E. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Interference of free fatty acids from the hepatopancreas of mussels with the mouse bioassay for shellfish toxins. Suzuki, T., Yoshizawa, R., Kawamura, T., Yamasaki, M. Lipids (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Transfer constants for blood-brain barrier permeation of the neuroexcitatory shellfish toxin, domoic acid. Preston, E., Hynie, I. The Canadian journal of neurological sciences. Le journal canadien des sciences neurologiques. (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. Sterol composition of normal human bile. Effects of feeding shellfish (marine) sterols. Lin, D.S., Connor, W.E., Phillipson, B.E. Gastroenterology (1984) [Pubmed]
  25. Isodomoic acid C, an unusual amnesic shellfish poisoning toxin from Pseudo-nitzschia australis. Holland, P.T., Selwood, A.I., Mountfort, D.O., Wilkins, A.L., McNabb, P., Rhodes, L.L., Doucette, G.J., Mikulski, C.M., King, K.L. Chem. Res. Toxicol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Neurotoxin domoic acid produces cytotoxicity via kainate- and AMPA-sensitive receptors in cultured cortical neurones. Larm, J.A., Beart, P.M., Cheung, N.S. Neurochem. Int. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Blood organic mercury and dietary mercury intake: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 and 2000. Mahaffey, K.R., Clickner, R.P., Bodurow, C.C. Environ. Health Perspect. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Ionic bonding, the mechanism of viral uptake by shellfish mucus. Di Girolamo, R., Liston, J., Matches, J. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  29. New insights into the role of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporters in high-density lipoprotein metabolism and reverse cholesterol transport. Brewer, H.B., Santamarina-Fojo, S. Am. J. Cardiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Rapid determination of polyether marine toxins using liquid chromatography-multiple tandem mass spectrometry. Fernández Puente, P., Fidalgo Sáez, M.J., Hamilton, B., Lehane, M., Ramstad, H., Furey, A., James, K.J. Journal of chromatography. A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  31. Metabolic transformation of dinophysistoxin-3 into dinophysistoxin-1 causes human intoxication by consumption of O-acyl-derivatives dinophysistoxins contaminated shellfish. García, C., Truan, D., Lagos, M., Santelices, J.P., Díaz, J.C., Lagos, N. The Journal of toxicological sciences. (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. Letter: Fish and shellfish hygiene. Simmons, N.A., Watkin, G.R. Lancet (1975) [Pubmed]
  33. Separation of tetrodotoxin and paralytic shellfish poisons by high-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorometric detection using o-phthalaldehyde. Onoue, Y., Noguchi, T., Nagashima, Y., Hashimoto, K., Kanoh, S., Ito, M., Tsukada, K. J. Chromatogr. (1983) [Pubmed]
  34. A pooled analysis of case-control studies of thyroid cancer. VI. Fish and shellfish consumption. Bosetti, C., Kolonel, L., Negri, E., Ron, E., Franceschi, S., Dal Maso, L., Galanti, M.R., Mark, S.D., Preston-Martin, S., McTiernan, A., Land, C., Jin, F., Wingren, G., Hallquist, A., Glattre, E., Lund, E., Levi, F., Linos, D., La Vecchia, C. Cancer Causes Control (2001) [Pubmed]
  35. Development of a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of domoic Acid in shellfish. Yu, F.Y., Liu, B.H., Wu, T.S., Chi, T.F., Su, M.C. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  36. Detection of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in shellfish tissue using MIST Alert, a new rapid test, in parallel with the regulatory AOAC mouse bioassay. Jellett, J.F., Roberts, R.L., Laycock, M.V., Quilliam, M.A., Barrett, R.E. Toxicon (2002) [Pubmed]
  37. Comparison between HPLC and a commercial immunoassay kit for detection of okadaic acid and esters in Portuguese bivalves. Vale, P., Sampayo, M.A. Toxicon (1999) [Pubmed]
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