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Gene Review

PPP6R1  -  protein phosphatase 6, regulatory subunit 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: KIAA1115, PP6R1, SAP190, SAPS domain family member 1, SAPS1, ...
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Disease relevance of SAPS1

  • Secreted aspartic proteinases (Saps) encoded by 10 genes of Candida albicans are important virulence factors for different types of candidiasis [1].
  • Since C. albicans proteinases (Saps) are virulence factors in oral candidiasis, we evaluated whether the b and c karyotypes secreted different levels of Saps and expressed different patterns of Sap-encoding genes (SAP1-10) [2].
  • The HIV-1 protease inhibitors ritonavir, saquinavir, indinavir, and nelfinavir were also tested for the inhibition of four Saps [3].
  • In conclusion, inhibition of Saps by HIV protease inhibitors may directly help to ease the resolution of mucosal candidiasis [4].

High impact information on SAPS1

  • We have used an in vivo expression technology that is based on genetic recombination as a reporter of gene expression to monitor the differential activation of individual members of a gene family encoding secreted aspartic proteinases (Saps), which have been implicated in C. albicans virulence, at various stages of the infection process [5].
  • To elucidate the relevance of the expressed Saps during oral infections, we examined the effect of the aspartic proteinase inhibitor, pepstatin A, during infection of the RHE [6].
  • These results suggest that C. albicans may both adhere to and enzymatically degrade mucins by the action of Saps, and that both properties may act to modulate Candida populations in the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract [7].
  • None of the Saps studied appears to play a role in C. albicans adherence to endothelial cells [8].
  • Using this system, we assessed 245 clinical isolates of Candida from patients in the hospital of the Faculty of Medicine, Palacky University, Olomouc, Czech Republic, for the presence of secreted aspartic proteases (Saps) [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of SAPS1


Anatomical context of SAPS1

  • Furthermore, Vac1p affects chlamydospore formation, adherence to human vaginal epithelial cells, and the secretion of aspartyl proteinases (Saps) [11].

Associations of SAPS1 with chemical compounds

  • The expression of secreted aspartyl proteinases (Saps) by clinical isolates of Candida albicans, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis in human saliva supplemented with glucose and in a proteinase-inducing medium (YCB-BSA), was investigated [12].

Other interactions of SAPS1

  • MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The LOD and SAPS II scores were calculated during the first (SAPS1, LOD1), second (SAPS2, LOD2), and third (SAPS3, LOD3) calendar days [13].


  1. Invasion of Candida albicans correlates with expression of secreted aspartic proteinases during experimental infection of human epidermis. Schaller, M., Schackert, C., Korting, H.C., Januschke, E., Hube, B. J. Invest. Dermatol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Differential expression of secretory aspartyl proteinase genes (SAP1-10) in oral Candida albicans isolates with distinct karyotypes. Tavanti, A., Pardini, G., Campa, D., Davini, P., Lupetti, A., Senesi, S. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Secreted aspartic proteases of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis and Candida lusitaniae. Inhibition with peptidomimetic inhibitors. Pichová, I., Pavlícková, L., Dostál, J., Dolejsí, E., Hrusková-Heidingsfeldová, O., Weber, J., Ruml, T., Soucek, M. Eur. J. Biochem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. HIV protease inhibitors attenuate adherence of Candida albicans to epithelial cells in vitro. Bektić, J., Lell, C.P., Fuchs, A., Stoiber, H., Speth, C., Lass-Flörl, C., Borg-von Zepelin, M., Dierich, M.P., Würzner, R. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Differential activation of a Candida albicans virulence gene family during infection. Staib, P., Kretschmar, M., Nichterlein, T., Hof, H., Morschhäuser, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Secreted aspartic proteinase (Sap) activity contributes to tissue damage in a model of human oral candidosis. Schaller, M., Korting, H.C., Schäfer, W., Bastert, J., Chen, W., Hube, B. Mol. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Characterization of binding of Candida albicans to small intestinal mucin and its role in adherence to mucosal epithelial cells. de Repentigny, L., Aumont, F., Bernard, K., Belhumeur, P. Infect. Immun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Secreted aspartyl proteinases and interactions of Candida albicans with human endothelial cells. Ibrahim, A.S., Filler, S.G., Sanglard, D., Edwards, J.E., Hube, B. Infect. Immun. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Simple method for screening Candida species isolates for the presence of secreted proteinases: a tool for the prediction of successful inhibitory treatment. Dostál, J., Hamal, P., Pavlícková, L., Soucek, M., Ruml, T., Pichová, I., Hrusková-Heidingsfeldová, O. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Effect of antimycotic agents on the activity of aspartyl proteinases secreted by Candida albicans. Schaller, M., Krnjaic, N., Niewerth, M., Hamm, G., Hube, B., Korting, H.C. J. Med. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. The vesicle transport protein Vac1p is required for virulence of Candida albicans. Franke, K., Nguyen, M., H??rtl, A., Dahse, H.M., Vogl, G., W??rzner, R., Zipfel, P.F., K??nkel, W., Eck, R. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. The expression of secreted aspartyl proteinases of Candida species in human whole saliva. Wu, T., Samaranayake, L.P. J. Med. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Accuracy of a composite score using daily SAPS II and LOD scores for predicting hospital mortality in ICU patients hospitalized for more than 72 h. Timsit, J.F., Fosse, J.P., Troché, G., De Lassence, A., Alberti, C., Garrouste-Orgeas, M., Azoulay, E., Chevret, S., Moine, P., Cohen, Y. Intensive care medicine. (2001) [Pubmed]
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