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Gene Review

Grik4  -  glutamate receptor, ionotropic, kainate 4

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: GluK4, Glutamate receptor KA-1, Glutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 4, KA1
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Psychiatry related information on Grik4


High impact information on Grik4

  • Although kainate-receptor subunits (GluR5-7, KA1 and 2) are widely expressed in the mammalian central nervous system, little is known about their function [2].
  • Kainate receptors are formed from a separate set of genes (GluR5-7, KA-1 and KA-2) and are widely distributed throughout the brain [3].
  • The selectively high expression of KA-1 messenger RNA in the CA3 region of the hippocampus closely corresponds to autoradiographically located high-affinity kainate binding sites [4].
  • The KA-1 mRNA occurs mainly in the CA3 field of the hippocampus and dentate gyrus, with much lower amounts being found in inner cortical layers, cerebellar Purkinje cells, and white matter (e.g., corpus callosum and anterior commissure) [5].
  • We also show that the high-affinity kainate receptor subunits KA1 and KA2 are expressed in central terminals of DRG neurons and are co-expressed with low-affinity receptor subunits in the same terminals [6].

Biological context of Grik4


Anatomical context of Grik4

  • This correlation, as well as the particular in vivo pattern of neurodegeneration observed on kainate-induced neurotoxicity, suggests that KA-1 participates in receptors mediating the kainate sensitivity of neurons in the central nervous system [4].
  • Neither KA1 nor GluR5 expression was observed in the basal ganglia of adult rats, although these messages were present in other regions [9].
  • The relative abundances of KA1 and KA2 were 12 and 88% for cortical neurones, and 19 and 79% for spinal cord neurones, respectively [10].
  • During postnatal development, expression of the kainate receptor subunits was characteristically highest on postnatal day 1 and declined to adult levels by day 20; however, in the globus pallidus we did observe the transient expression of KA1 and GluR5 between day 1 and day 10 [9].
  • Binding affinities were similar in both cytosols (KA1 approximately 1.5 X 10(9) M-1, KA2 approximately 1 X 10(8) M-1); in contrast, the number of sites was 4-fold smaller in 14-day cytosols [11].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Grik4


  1. Contrasting effects of electroconvulsive shock on mRNAs encoding the high affinity kainate receptor subunits (KA1 and KA2) and cyclophilin in the rat. Porter, R.H., Burnet, P.W., Eastwood, S.L., Harrison, P.J. Brain Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Developmental and activity-dependent regulation of kainate receptors at thalamocortical synapses. Kidd, F.L., Isaac, J.T. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. The synaptic activation of kainate receptors. Vignes, M., Collingridge, G.L. Nature (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Cloning of a putative high-affinity kainate receptor expressed predominantly in hippocampal CA3 cells. Werner, P., Voigt, M., Keinänen, K., Wisden, W., Seeburg, P.H. Nature (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. A complex mosaic of high-affinity kainate receptors in rat brain. Wisden, W., Seeburg, P.H. J. Neurosci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Presynaptic low- and high-affinity kainate receptors in nociceptive spinal afferents. Lucifora, S., Willcockson, H.H., Lu, C.R., Darstein, M., Phend, K.D., Valtschanoff, J.G., Rustioni, A. Pain (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Linkage mapping of the interleukin 1beta converting enzyme (Il1bc) and the glutamate receptor subunit KA1 (Grik4) genes to rat chromosome 8. Pravenec, M., Kren, V., Hope, M., Wang, J.M., St Lezin, E. Folia Biol. (Praha) (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Ontogeny of kainate receptor gene expression in the developing rat midbrain and striatum. Lilliu, V., Perrone-Capano, C., Pernas-Alonso, R., Diaz Trelles, R., Luca Colucci d'Amato, G., Zuddas, A., di Porzio, U. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Differential expression of kainate receptors in the basal ganglia of the developing and adult rat brain. Wüllner, U., Standaert, D.G., Testa, C.M., Penney, J.B., Young, A.B. Brain Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Correlation of the expression of kainate receptor subtypes to responses evoked in cultured cortical and spinal cord neurones. Dai, W.M., Christensen, K.V., Egebjerg, J., Ebert, B., Lambert, J.D. Brain Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Cellular location of cytosolic triiodothyronine binding protein in primary cultures of fetal rat brain. Francon, J., Osty, J., Chantoux, F., Lennon, A.M. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  12. Kainate receptor gene expression in the developing rat brain. Bahn, S., Volk, B., Wisden, W. J. Neurosci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Glutamate-induced cobalt uptake elicited by kainate receptors in rat taste bud cells. Chung, K.M., Lee, S.B., Heur, R., Cho, Y.K., Lee, C.H., Jung, H.Y., Chung, S.H., Lee, S.P., Kim, K.N. Chem. Senses (2005) [Pubmed]
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