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Gene Review

PRLR  -  prolactin receptor

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Disease relevance of PRLR


High impact information on PRLR

  • A 7-fold increase in a prolactin receptor occurred as a function of cell cycle progression; accumulation of a 1.6-kilobase prolactin receptor mRNA increased approximately 2-fold [2].
  • These studies define the basis of cellular trafficking of PRLR isoforms and increase our understanding of control of target cell responsiveness by PRL [3].
  • We have analyzed the ability of each form of rat PRLR to transduce lactogenic signals in a bovine mammary gland epithelial cell line [4].
  • When the biological activity of each form of PRLR was assessed by transient transfection, we found that the long form was able to activate the beta-casein gene promoter and that the short form was inactive [4].
  • Similarly, the short form of the PRLR was not detected in nuclei of transfected COS cells upon PRL treatment [5].

Biological context of PRLR

  • Furthermore, the data derived from coexpression of LPRLR and PRLR mutants confirm a crucial role of the C-terminal tyrosine residue in lactogenic signaling and the dimerization of PRLRs [4].
  • PRL receptor (PRLR) signal transduction supports PRL-induced growth/differentiation processes [6].
  • We herein report new evidence that the QTL effect on chromosome 20 in Finnish Ayrshire can be explained by variation in two distinct genes, growth hormone receptor (GHR) and prolactin receptor (PRLR) [7].
  • The present study demonstrates for the first time the expressions of PRL and PRLR mRNA in bovine CL throughout the luteal phase [8].
  • The objective of this study was to determine the effects of exposure to different lengths of daylight during the dry period on circulating PRL and PRL receptor (PRL-R) mRNA expression in lymphocytes and mammary tissue during the transition to lactation [9].

Anatomical context of PRLR


Associations of PRLR with chemical compounds

  • Using rhodamine-labeled PRL, we observed specific PRL uptake by these cells that suggested the presence of a PRL receptor [13].
  • Daily injections of bGH or bLH, alone or in combination, or estrogens with PVP failed to restore PRL-R [14].
  • Scatchard analysis demonstrated that the effect of N-ethylmaleimide resulted from loss of receptor-binding capacity without any substantial effect on the affinity of the prl receptor for hormone [15].
  • T4 replacement reversed the effects of thyrocyte ablation on MUP mRNA in females and on Prl receptor mRNA in males.2+ Despite the many physiological changes induced by thyrocyte ablation, ablated mice have been maintained for up to 1 year without thyroid hormone supplementation [16].
  • Neither insulin secretion nor the relative amount of PRL-R mRNA was affected by estradiol (100 ng/ml) [17].

Other interactions of PRLR

  • The results provide strong evidence that the effect of PRLR S18N polymorphism is distinct from the GHR F279Y effect [7].
  • Whether the effect of IFN-tau on PRL-R expression is mediated directly or influenced, at least in part, by progesterone remains to be elucidated [18].
  • Using ribonuclease protection assay procedures, we compared endometrial PRL-R mRNA levels in ewes that were intrauterine injected with either 2 mg bovine serum albumin or 2 mg recombinant ovine IFN-tau on day 10 of the oestrous cycle (day 0 = day of oestrus) [18].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PRLR

  • The rat PRLR forms were expressed and detected by RT-PCR, indirect immunofluorescence, and cell surface ligand binding [4].
  • Mammary expression of suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-1, -2, and -3; the long form of PRL-receptor; and alpha-lactalbumin mRNA was measured by real-time reverse-transcription PCR [19].
  • Translation of the PRL-R mRNA was confirmed by Western blot analysis [10].
  • The identification of PRL-R in specific pituitary cell types was carried out by immunocytochemistry [10].
  • At position 90 the bulk of the residue was the most important factor in modulating biological activity in either the rat Nb2 cell bioassay or PRL receptor binding [20].


  1. Extracellular domain of prolactin receptor from bovine mammary gland: expression in Escherichia coli, purification and characterization of its interaction with lactogenic hormones. Tchelet, A., Staten, N.R., Creely, D.P., Krivi, G.G., Gertler, A. J. Endocrinol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Regulation of interleukin 2-driven T-lymphocyte proliferation by prolactin. Clevenger, C.V., Russell, D.H., Appasamy, P.M., Prystowsky, M.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Multiple internalization motifs differentially used by prolactin receptor isoforms mediate similar endocytic pathways. Lu, J.C., Scott, P., Strous, G.J., Schuler, L.A. Mol. Endocrinol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. The short form of the prolactin (PRL) receptor silences PRL induction of the beta-casein gene promoter. Berlanga, J.J., Garcia-Ruiz, J.P., Perrot-Applanat, M., Kelly, P.A., Edery, M. Mol. Endocrinol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Internalization of prolactin receptor and prolactin in transfected cells does not involve nuclear translocation. Perrot-Applanat, M., Gualillo, O., Buteau, H., Edery, M., Kelly, P.A. J. Cell. Sci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Prolactin (PRL)-PRL receptor system increases cell proliferation involving JNK (c-Jun amino terminal kinase) and AP-1 activation: inhibition by glucocorticoids. Olazabal, I., Muñoz, J., Ogueta, S., Obregón, E., García-Ruiz, J.P. Mol. Endocrinol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. The role of the bovine growth hormone receptor and prolactin receptor genes in milk, fat and protein production in Finnish Ayrshire dairy cattle. Viitala, S., Szyda, J., Blott, S., Schulman, N., Lidauer, M., Mäki-Tanila, A., Georges, M., Vilkki, J. Genetics (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Bovine corpus luteum is an extrapituitary site of prolactin production. Shibaya, M., Murakami, S., Tatsukawa, Y., Skarzynski, D.J., Acosta, T.J., Okuda, K. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Effects of photoperiod during the dry period on prolactin, prolactin receptor, and milk production of dairy cows. Auchtung, T.L., Rius, A.G., Kendall, P.E., McFadden, T.B., Dahl, G.E. J. Dairy Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Detection of prolactin receptor gene expression in the sheep pituitary gland and visualization of the specific translation of the signal in gonadotrophs. Tortonese, D.J., Brooks, J., Ingleton, P.M., McNeilly, A.S. Endocrinology (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Partial purification and characterization of bovine mammary gland prolactin receptor. Ashkenazi, A., Madar, Z., Gertler, A. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  12. Ruminants express a prolactin receptor of M(r) 33,000-36,000 in the mammary gland throughout pregnancy and lactation. Smith, J.J., Capuco, A.V., Mather, I.H., Vonderhaar, B.K. J. Endocrinol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Structural and functional effects of high prolactin levels on injured endothelial cells: evidence for an endothelial prolactin receptor. Merkle, C.J., Schuler, L.A., Schaeffer, R.C., Gribbon, J.M., Montgomery, D.W. Endocrine (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Prolactin induces its own receptors in rat liver. Manni, A., Chambers, M.J., Pearson, O.H. Endocrinology (1978) [Pubmed]
  15. Evidence that non-covalent forces, thiol and disulphide groups affect the structure and binding properties of the prolactin receptor on hepatocytes from pregnant rats. Yamada, K., Donner, D.B. Biochem. J. (1985) [Pubmed]
  16. Consequences of thyroid hormone deficiency induced by the specific ablation of thyroid follicle cells in adult transgenic mice. Wallace, H., McLaren, K., al-Shawi, R., Bishop, J.O. J. Endocrinol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Effect of hormones on expression of prolactin receptor messenger ribonucleic acids in pancreatic islets of adult female mice in vitro. Matsuda, M., Mori, T. Zool. Sci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Interferon-tau upregulates prolactin receptor mRNA in the ovine endometrium during the peri-implantation period. Martin, C., Pessemesse, L., De La Llosa-Hermier, M.P., Martal, J., Djiane, J., Charlier, M. Reproduction (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Mammary response to exogenous prolactin or frequent milking during early lactation in dairy cows. Wall, E.H., Crawford, H.M., Ellis, S.E., Dahl, G.E., McFadden, T.B. J. Dairy Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Functional relationship of serine 90 phosphorylation and the surrounding putative salt bridge in bovine prolactin. Schenck, E.J., Canfield, J.M., Brooks, C.L. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (2003) [Pubmed]
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