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Gene Review

Prlr  -  prolactin receptor

Mus musculus

Synonyms: AI987712, PRL-R, Pr-1, Pr-3, Prlr-rs1, ...
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Disease relevance of Prlr


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Chemical compound and disease context of Prlr


Biological context of Prlr


Anatomical context of Prlr


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Physical interactions of Prlr


Regulatory relationships of Prlr


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Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Prlr

  • Total cellular RNA was isolated from livers of transgenic and nontransgenic mice and analyzed on Northern blots using probes specific for GH-R and PRL-R [25].
  • In situ hybridization revealed that PR mRNA distribution is homogeneous in the ductal epithelium before 6 weeks and heterogenous during puberty and gestation and that PRLR and PR are similarly distributed in the ductal epithelium [13].
  • In conclusion, the expression of a constitutively active PRL-R by transgenesis induces a premature and abnormal mammary development and impairs terminal differentiation and milk production at the end of pregnancy [14].
  • We examined the specific contributions of the prolactin receptor (PrlR) and the signal transducers and activators of transcription 5a and 5b (referred to as Stat5) in the formation and differentiation of mammary alveolar epithelium [26].
  • Total RNA was used for cDNA synthesis which was amplified by PCR, using oligonucleotides specific to the different forms of the prolactin receptor [27].


  1. Lack of prolactin receptor signaling in mice results in lactotroph proliferation and prolactinomas by dopamine-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Schuff, K.G., Hentges, S.T., Kelly, M.A., Binart, N., Kelly, P.A., Iuvone, P.M., Asa, S.L., Low, M.J. J. Clin. Invest. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Characterization of a prolactin-regulated gene in reproductive tissues using the prolactin receptor knockout mouse model. Baran, N., Kelly, P.A., Binart, N. Biol. Reprod. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Tissue-specific gene expression of prolactin receptor in the acute-phase response induced by lipopolysaccharides. Corbacho, A.M., Valacchi, G., Kubala, L., Olano-Martín, E., Schock, B.C., Kenny, T.P., Cross, C.E. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Null mutation of the prolactin receptor gene produces a defect in maternal behavior. Lucas, B.K., Ormandy, C.J., Binart, N., Bridges, R.S., Kelly, P.A. Endocrinology (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. SOCS1 deficiency results in accelerated mammary gland development and rescues lactation in prolactin receptor-deficient mice. Lindeman, G.J., Wittlin, S., Lada, H., Naylor, M.J., Santamaria, M., Zhang, J.G., Starr, R., Hilton, D.J., Alexander, W.S., Ormandy, C.J., Visvader, J. Genes Dev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Implications of multiple phenotypes observed in prolactin receptor knockout mice. Kelly, P.A., Binart, N., Lucas, B., Bouchard, B., Goffin, V. Frontiers in neuroendocrinology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Implantation and decidualization defects in prolactin receptor (PRLR)-deficient mice are mediated by ovarian but not uterine PRLR. Reese, J., Binart, N., Brown, N., Ma, W.G., Paria, B.C., Das, S.K., Kelly, P.A., Dey, S.K. Endocrinology (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Involvement of gonadal steroid hormone disturbance in altered prolactin receptor gene expression in the liver of diabetic mice. Yasui, T., Murakami, T., Maeda, T., Oka, T. J. Endocrinol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Prolactin, growth hormone, and epidermal growth factor activate Stat5 in different compartments of mammary tissue and exert different and overlapping developmental effects. Gallego, M.I., Binart, N., Robinson, G.W., Okagaki, R., Coschigano, K.T., Perry, J., Kopchick, J.J., Oka, T., Kelly, P.A., Hennighausen, L. Dev. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Prolactin signaling influences the timing mechanism of the hair follicle: analysis of hair growth cycles in prolactin receptor knockout mice. Craven, A.J., Ormandy, C.J., Robertson, F.G., Wilkins, R.J., Kelly, P.A., Nixon, A.J., Pearson, A.J. Endocrinology (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Growth hormone, acting in part through the insulin-like growth factor axis, rescues developmental, but not metabolic, activity in the mammary gland of mice expressing a single allele of the prolactin receptor. Allan, G.J., Tonner, E., Barber, M.C., Travers, M.T., Shand, J.H., Vernon, R.G., Kelly, P.A., Binart, N., Flint, D.J. Endocrinology (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. PRL receptor-mediated effects in female mouse adipocytes: PRL induces suppressors of cytokine signaling expression and suppresses insulin-induced leptin production in adipocytes in vitro. Ling, C., Billig, H. Endocrinology (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Transcriptional and spatiotemporal regulation of prolactin receptor mRNA and cooperativity with progesterone receptor function during ductal branch growth in the mammary gland. Hovey, R.C., Trott, J.F., Ginsburg, E., Goldhar, A., Sasaki, M.M., Fountain, S.J., Sundararajan, K., Vonderhaar, B.K. Dev. Dyn. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Expression by transgenesis of a constitutively active mutant form of the prolactin receptor induces premature abnormal development of the mouse mammary gland and lactation failure. Gourdou, I., Paly, J., Hue-Beauvais, C., Pessemesse, L., Clark, J., Djiane, J. Biol. Reprod. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) and prolactin signaling: PGF(2alpha)-mediated inhibition of prolactin receptor expression in the Corpus luteum. Stocco, C., Djiane, J., Gibori, G. Endocrinology (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. CIS1 interacts with the Y532 of the prolactin receptor and suppresses prolactin-dependent STAT5 activation. Endo, T., Sasaki, A., Minoguchi, M., Joo, A., Yoshimura, A. J. Biochem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Rac1 links integrin-mediated adhesion to the control of lactational differentiation in mammary epithelia. Akhtar, N., Streuli, C.H. J. Cell Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Disruption of steroid and prolactin receptor patterning in the mammary gland correlates with a block in lobuloalveolar development. Grimm, S.L., Seagroves, T.N., Kabotyanski, E.B., Hovey, R.C., Vonderhaar, B.K., Lydon, J.P., Miyoshi, K., Hennighausen, L., Ormandy, C.J., Lee, A.V., Stull, M.A., Wood, T.L., Rosen, J.M. Mol. Endocrinol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Mutational analysis of a lactogenic hormone reveals a role for lactogen-specific amino acid residues in receptor binding and mitogenic activity. Davis, J.A., Linzer, D.I. Mol. Endocrinol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. A mutant lactogenic hormone binds, but does not activate, the prolactin receptor. Davis, J.A., Linzer, D.I. Mol. Endocrinol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  21. Selective coupling of STAT factors to the mouse prolactin receptor. Mayr, S., Welte, T., Windegger, M., Lechner, J., May, P., Heinrich, P.C., Horn, F., Doppler, W. Eur. J. Biochem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Expression of prolactin receptors in murine lymphoid cells in normal and autoimmune situations. Gagnerault, M.C., Touraine, P., Savino, W., Kelly, P.A., Dardenne, M. J. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. Progesterone and EGF inhibit mouse mammary gland prolactin receptor and beta-casein gene expression. Nishikawa, S., Moore, R.C., Nonomura, N., Oka, T. Am. J. Physiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. STAT5a regulates the GlcNAc-1-phosphate transferase gene transcription and expression. Zhang, X.L., Qu, X.J., Vijay, I.K. Cell. Physiol. Biochem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Elevation of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin receptors in transgenic mice expressing ovine GH. Orian, J.M., Snibson, K., Stevenson, J.L., Brandon, M.R., Herington, A.C. Endocrinology (1991) [Pubmed]
  26. Signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat) 5 controls the proliferation and differentiation of mammary alveolar epithelium. Miyoshi, K., Shillingford, J.M., Smith, G.H., Grimm, S.L., Wagner, K.U., Oka, T., Rosen, J.M., Robinson, G.W., Hennighausen, L. J. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Expression of short and long forms of prolactin receptor in murine lymphoid tissues. Touraine, P., Leite de Moraes, M.C., Dardenne, M., Kelly, P.A. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1994) [Pubmed]
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