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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Lactation

  • Hypercalcemia in pregnancy and lactation associated with parathyroid hormone-related protein [1].
  • Using comparative ultrastructural analysis, we found that, after specific enzymatic removal of PSA from NCAM by microinjection of endoneuraminidase close to the hypothalamic magnocellular nuclei in vivo, there was no apparent withdrawal of astrocytic processes nor any increase in synaptic contacts normally induced by lactation and dehydration [2].
  • Vitamin A deficiency is also likely to increase vulnerability to other illnesses in both women and children, such as iron-deficiency anemia, and may be an important factor contributing to poor maternal performance during pregnancy and lactation and to growth deficits in children [3].
  • Following an intravenous EDTA infusion and the spontaneous calcium drain associated with parturition and the beginning of lactation, Cl2MDP-treated cows developed severe hypocalcemia [4].
  • STC has also been linked to cancer, pregnancy, lactation, angiogenesis, organogenesis, cerebral ischemia, and hypertonic stress [5].

Psychiatry related information on Lactation

  • Factors for which the evidence of an etiologic role has mounted over the past several years, but which are not yet considered to be established, include the protective effects of parity and lactation in certain age groups and the increased risks associated with alcohol consumption and with DES exposure during pregnancy [6].
  • These data suggest that serotonergic elements in the MR nucleus play an obligatory role in maintaining normal maternal behavior during lactation, but they are not involved in suckling induced PRL release [7].
  • The dose-response effects of intraruminal infusion of propionate on feeding behavior of lactating dairy cows were evaluated with eight ruminally cannulated Holstein cows past peak lactation [8].
  • Most Muridae display a short luteal phase that becomes functional as a consequence of the prolactin release induced by the stimulation of copulation and/or lactation [9].
  • These stimuli caused similar nucleolar changes in PV neurones, but water deprivation caused greater changes in SO neurones than lactation [10].

High impact information on Lactation


Chemical compound and disease context of Lactation


Biological context of Lactation


Anatomical context of Lactation


Associations of Lactation with chemical compounds

  • Preparation of the breast for lactation and nourishment of the newborn appears to involve a multifactorial system of regulation that includes estrogen [31].
  • The concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25-(OH)2D], calcium, and phosphorus were measured in the serum of rats during pregnancy and at various stages of lactation [32].
  • Administration of phenobarbital to mother rats during early lactation causes long-term, perhaps permanent, alteration of hepatic microsomal mixed-function oxidase activity and aflatoxin B1 adduct formation in the adult male offspring [33].
  • Lead acetate (0.02 or 0.5 percent) was administered to dams throughout the lactation period with half of the litters continuing on lead after weaning [34].
  • The use of c-Fos expression has permitted functional neuroanatomical mapping of these systems in response to specific stimuli such as cholecystokinin (CCK), hyperosmolality, and volume depletion, or during various physiological states such as the proestrous ovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge and lactation [35].

Gene context of Lactation

  • In addition, increased transcription of mammary Brca1 during pregnancy might contribute, in part, to the reduced cancer risk associated with exposure to pregnancy and lactation [36].
  • Activated Ha-ras expression caused a decrease of milk protein synthesis during the lactation period [37].
  • CONCLUSION: These data clearly support the hypothesis that PTHrP is an alternative mechanism associated with bone loss and recovery during and subsequent to lactation [38].
  • Whereas steady state levels of OT mRNA were markedly increased throughout lactation, those of AVP mRNA were only transiently (initially) elevated, and the blood levels of these hormones were not significantly altered in lactating as compared with cycling virgin and postlactating rats [39].
  • Lactation was not affected by the absence of TIMP-3, but glandular function, as measured by gland-to-body weight ratio and production of beta-casein, was suppressed earlier during post-lactational involution than in controls [40].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Lactation


  1. Hypercalcemia in pregnancy and lactation associated with parathyroid hormone-related protein. Lepre, F., Grill, V., Ho, P.W., Martin, T.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Cell surface expression of polysialic acid on NCAM is a prerequisite for activity-dependent morphological neuronal and glial plasticity. Theodosis, D.T., Bonhomme, R., Vitiello, S., Rougon, G., Poulain, D.A. J. Neurosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. The contribution of vitamin A to public health. Underwood, B.A., Arthur, P. FASEB J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Effect of dichloromethane diphosphonate on calcium homeostatic mechanisms in pregnant cows. Yarrington, J.T., Capen, C.C., Black, H.E., Re, R., Nagode, L.A., Geho, W.B. Am. J. Pathol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  5. Characterization of mammalian stanniocalcin receptors. Mitochondrial targeting of ligand and receptor for regulation of cellular metabolism. McCudden, C.R., James, K.A., Hasilo, C., Wagner, G.F. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. The epidemiology of breast cancer. Kelsey, J.L., Gammon, M.D. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Specific neurotoxin lesions of median raphe serotonergic neurons disrupt maternal behavior in the lactating rat. Barofsky, A.L., Taylor, J., Tizabi, Y., Kumar, R., Jones-Quartey, K. Endocrinology (1983) [Pubmed]
  8. Intraruminal infusion of propionate alters feeding behavior and decreases energy intake of lactating dairy cows. Oba, M., Allen, M.S. J. Nutr. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Evidence that a novel type of progestational phase control occurs in the corn mouse, a South American murid rodent. Cutrera, R.A., Buzzio, O.L., Koninckx, A., Carreno, N.B., Castro-Vazquez, A. Biol. Reprod. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Water deprivation in lactating rats: changes in nucleolar dry mass of paraventricular and supraoptic neurones. Russell, J.A. Cell Tissue Res. (1980) [Pubmed]
  11. The oxytocin receptor system: structure, function, and regulation. Gimpl, G., Fahrenholz, F. Physiol. Rev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Obesity resistance and multiple mechanisms of triglyceride synthesis in mice lacking Dgat. Smith, S.J., Cases, S., Jensen, D.R., Chen, H.C., Sande, E., Tow, B., Sanan, D.A., Raber, J., Eckel, R.H., Farese, R.V. Nat. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. The X-ray structure of a growth hormone-prolactin receptor complex. Somers, W., Ultsch, M., De Vos, A.M., Kossiakoff, A.A. Nature (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Influence of local vascularity on hormone receptors in mammary gland. Moore, B.P., Forsyth, I.A. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
  15. Inhibitory effect of prolactin on ovulation in the in vitro perfused rabbit ovary. Hamada, Y., Schlaff, S., Kobayashi, Y., Santulli, R., Wright, K.H., Wallach, E.E. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
  16. Delayed lactogenesis in women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Neubauer, S.H., Ferris, A.M., Chase, C.G., Fanelli, J., Thompson, C.A., Lammi-Keefe, C.J., Clark, R.M., Jensen, R.G., Bendel, R.B., Green, K.W. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Anti-ketogenic effect of glucose in the lactating cow deprived of food. Treacher, R.J., Baird, G.D., Young, J.L. Biochem. J. (1976) [Pubmed]
  18. Low estrogen and high parathyroid hormone-related peptide levels contribute to accelerated bone resorption and bone loss in lactating mice. VanHouten, J.N., Wysolmerski, J.J. Endocrinology (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Maternal undernutrition during lactation: effect on amino acids in brain regions of offspring. Rathbun, W.E., Druse, M.J. J. Neurochem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  20. Thyroid-induced changes in the growth of the liver, kidney, and diaphragm of neonatal rats. Canavan, J.P., Holt, J., Easton, J., Smith, K., Goldspink, D.F. J. Cell. Physiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. SOCS1 deficiency results in accelerated mammary gland development and rescues lactation in prolactin receptor-deficient mice. Lindeman, G.J., Wittlin, S., Lada, H., Naylor, M.J., Santamaria, M., Zhang, J.G., Starr, R., Hilton, D.J., Alexander, W.S., Ormandy, C.J., Visvader, J. Genes Dev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. CD44 anchors the assembly of matrilysin/MMP-7 with heparin-binding epidermal growth factor precursor and ErbB4 and regulates female reproductive organ remodeling. Yu, W.H., Woessner, J.F., McNeish, J.D., Stamenkovic, I. Genes Dev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Targeting expression of a transforming growth factor beta 1 transgene to the pregnant mammary gland inhibits alveolar development and lactation. Jhappan, C., Geiser, A.G., Kordon, E.C., Bagheri, D., Hennighausen, L., Roberts, A.B., Smith, G.H., Merlino, G. EMBO J. (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Generation and reproductive phenotypes of mice lacking estrogen receptor beta. Krege, J.H., Hodgin, J.B., Couse, J.F., Enmark, E., Warner, M., Mahler, J.F., Sar, M., Korach, K.S., Gustafsson, J.A., Smithies, O. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Expression of butyrophilin (Btn1a1) in lactating mammary gland is essential for the regulated secretion of milk-lipid droplets. Ogg, S.L., Weldon, A.K., Dobbie, L., Smith, A.J., Mather, I.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. The calcium-sensing receptor regulates mammary gland parathyroid hormone-related protein production and calcium transport. VanHouten, J., Dann, P., McGeoch, G., Brown, E.M., Krapcho, K., Neville, M., Wysolmerski, J.J. J. Clin. Invest. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. Hormonal induction of the secretory immune system in the mammary gland. Weisz-Carrington, P., Roux, M.E., McWilliams, M., Phillips-Quagliata, J.M., Lamm, M.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1978) [Pubmed]
  28. Vasoactive intestinal peptide-containing neurons in the paraventricular nucleus may participate in regulating prolactin secretion. Mezey, E., Kiss, J.Z. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
  29. A milk protein gene promoter directs the expression of human tissue plasminogen activator cDNA to the mammary gland in transgenic mice. Pittius, C.W., Hennighausen, L., Lee, E., Westphal, H., Nicols, E., Vitale, J., Gordon, K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  30. The winged helix gene, Mf3, is required for normal development of the diencephalon and midbrain, postnatal growth and the milk-ejection reflex. Labosky, P.A., Winnier, G.E., Jetton, T.L., Hargett, L., Ryan, A.K., Rosenfeld, M.G., Parlow, A.F., Hogan, B.L. Development (1997) [Pubmed]
  31. Actions of placental and fetal adrenal steroid hormones in primate pregnancy. Pepe, G.J., Albrecht, E.D. Endocr. Rev. (1995) [Pubmed]
  32. Dynamic changes in circulating 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D during reproduction in rats. Pike, J.W., Parker, J.B., Haussler, M.R., Boass, A., Toverud, S.V. Science (1979) [Pubmed]
  33. Exposure of newborn rats to pharmacologically active compounds may permanently alter carcinogen metabolism. Faris, R.A., Campbell, T.C. Science (1981) [Pubmed]
  34. Drug discrimination learning in lead-exposed rats. Zenick, H., Goldsmith, M. Science (1981) [Pubmed]
  35. c-Fos and related immediate early gene products as markers of activity in neuroendocrine systems. Hoffman, G.E., Smith, M.S., Verbalis, J.G. Frontiers in neuroendocrinology. (1993) [Pubmed]
  36. Expression of Brca1 is associated with terminal differentiation of ectodermally and mesodermally derived tissues in mice. Lane, T.F., Deng, C., Elson, A., Lyu, M.S., Kozak, C.A., Leder, P. Genes Dev. (1995) [Pubmed]
  37. Ha-ras and c-myc oncogene expression interferes with morphological and functional differentiation of mammary epithelial cells in single and double transgenic mice. Andres, A.C., van der Valk, M.A., Schönenberger, C.A., Flückiger, F., LeMeur, M., Gerlinger, P., Groner, B. Genes Dev. (1988) [Pubmed]
  38. Elevated parathyroid hormone-related peptide associated with lactation and bone density loss. Sowers, M.F., Hollis, B.W., Shapiro, B., Randolph, J., Janney, C.A., Zhang, D., Schork, A., Crutchfield, M., Stanczyk, F., Russell-Aulet, M. JAMA (1996) [Pubmed]
  39. Lactation as a model for naturally reversible hypercorticalism plasticity in the mechanisms governing hypothalamo-pituitary- adrenocortical activity in rats. Fischer, D., Patchev, V.K., Hellbach, S., Hassan, A.H., Almeida, O.F. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  40. Accelerated apoptosis in the Timp-3-deficient mammary gland. Fata, J.E., Leco, K.J., Voura, E.B., Yu, H.Y., Waterhouse, P., Murphy, G., Moorehead, R.A., Khokha, R. J. Clin. Invest. (2001) [Pubmed]
  41. Studies of Muc-1 mucin expression and polarity in the mouse mammary gland demonstrate developmental regulation of Muc-1 glycosylation and establish the hormonal basis for mRNA expression. Parry, G., Li, J., Stubbs, J., Bissell, M.J., Schmidhauser, C., Spicer, A.P., Gendler, S.J. J. Cell. Sci. (1992) [Pubmed]
  42. Augmentation of puerperal lactation by oral administration of sulpiride. Aono, T., Shioji, T., Aki, T., Hirota, K., Nomura, A., Kurachi, K. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1979) [Pubmed]
  43. Cytochromes P450 of the 2D subfamily in rat brain. Wyss, A., Gustafsson, J.A., Warner, M. Mol. Pharmacol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  44. Serum osteoprotegerin as a determinant of bone metabolism in a longitudinal study of human pregnancy and lactation. Naylor, K.E., Rogers, A., Fraser, R.B., Hall, V., Eastell, R., Blumsohn, A. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2003) [Pubmed]
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