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Gene Review

IFNT2  -  interferon tau

Bos taurus

Synonyms: IFN-tau-c2, IFNT, IFNT1, TP-1
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Disease relevance of TP-1


Psychiatry related information on TP-1


High impact information on TP-1

  • Sexual dimorphism among bovine embryos in their ability to make the transition to expanded blastocyst and in the expression of the signaling molecule IFN-tau [7].
  • It is possible that the differences between male and female embryos both in their production of IFN-tau and in their ability to progress in development in glucose-rich media are manifestations of phenomena that occur in vivo and provide plasticity in embryo selection during early pregnancy [7].
  • With both media, female blastocysts produced approximately double the amount of IFN-tau as males, regardless of such variables as oocyte batch, blastocyst quality, hatching, and length of time in culture [7].
  • The pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs), which are secreted by the trophoblast layer of the placentas of ungulate species and are inactive members of the aspartic proteinase family, can also bind ovUS-1 and may be the natural target partners for the uterine serpins [8].
  • TP-1 mRNA is detectable by Northern analysis in conceptuses from early pregnancy but is absent in late gestation placenta and several adult tissues [1].

Chemical compound and disease context of TP-1


Biological context of TP-1


Anatomical context of TP-1

  • Following RT-PCR and Northern blot analysis, specific bands corresponding to PRM-2 and TP-1 were detected only in adult testis RNA or after 10 wk of culture [16].
  • At 2, 5, and 10 wk, cultured cells were examined and evaluated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Northern blot analysis for protamine-2 (PRM-2) and transition protein-1 (TP-1) mRNA, expressed specifically in round spermatids [16].
  • The initial 20 samples were used to determine the dose-response curve of three different thymic extracts (TP-1, bovine thymic extract; TG-15-I and TG-15-II, both porcine thymic extracts) and one of renal origin (KG-1) as a control of non-lymphoid organ extract, by measuring the E-rosette T cells [17].
  • The genes for trophoblast interferons (IFN) bovine trophoblast protein-1 (bTP-1) and ovine trophoblast protein-1 (oTP-1) are expressed massively in the trophectoderm of preimplantation bovine and ovine concepti during the period of maternal recognition of pregnancy [13].
  • Mean concentrations of IFN-tau messenger RNA were greater at day 17 and day 19 than at day 14 and day 25, with different genes showing comparable expression patterns, although there appeared to be a major bias in expression of two genes (for boIFN-tau1c and tau3a) in blastocysts [18].

Associations of TP-1 with chemical compounds

  • In order to maintain luteal progesterone secretion, IFN-tau inhibits PGF-2alpha pulsatile secretion and oxytocin uterine receptivity in early pregnancy [19].
  • Here we describe the synthesis of a novel IFN-tau 1 in which Leu169 and Leu171 in the carboxyl terminus have been replaced by 2 tyrosine residues [20].
  • These data are consistent with an earlier hypothesis that the inhibitor serves to neutralize the activities of one or more serine proteinases generated by the proliferating trophoblast during the formation of the noninvasive placenta of the pig [21].
  • After trypsin digestion of placental villi, isolated trophoblast cells were either treated with ammonium chloride (A) or purified on Percoll density gradients (P) and then grown in monolayer culture with medium 199 plus 10% fetal bovine serum (M) or Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) plus 20% fetal bovine serum (D) [22].
  • Therefore, we used cell culture to determine the role of estrogen on placental reduction of E to F and to ascertain whether estrogen regulation of the oxidation of F to E was specific to trophoblast [23].

Regulatory relationships of TP-1


Other interactions of TP-1

  • The genes for the trophoblast interferons and the related interferon-alpha II possess distinct 5'-promoter and 3'-flanking sequences [13].
  • In experiment 2, in response to IFN-tau, COX-2 was up-regulated in the LE of the ipsilateral horn, whereas GM-CSF was enhanced in both uterine horns [29].
  • In experiment 2, the effects of intrauterine infusions of IFN-tau on the expression of COX-2 and GM-CSF were analyzed [29].
  • The objectives of the present experiments were to determine whether UCRP became conjugated to endometrial cytosolic proteins during early pregnancy and in response to recombinant bovine (rbo) IFN-tau [30].
  • On the basis of results obtained in vitro, we previously proposed a model in which signals from the conceptus, namely interferon-tau (IFN-tau) and prostaglandin E2, increase the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in immune and nonimmune cells of the bovine endometrium [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TP-1


  1. Constitutive and trophoblast-specific expression of a class of bovine interferon genes. Cross, J.C., Roberts, R.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Differential effects of type I IFNs on the growth of WC1- CD8+ gamma delta T cells and WC1+ CD8- gamma delta T cells in vitro. Tuo, W., Bazer, F.W., Davis, W.C., Zhu, D., Brown, W.C. J. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. IFN-tau inhibits IgE production in a murine model of allergy and in an IgE-producing human myeloma cell line. Mujtaba, M.G., Villarete, L., Johnson, H.M. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Src family kinases play multiple roles in differentiation of trophoblasts from human term placenta. Daoud, G., Rassart, E., Masse, A., Lafond, J. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Ovine trophoblast protein-1 and bovine trophoblast protein-1 are present as specific components of uterine flushings of pregnant ewes and cows. Kazemi, M., Malathy, P.V., Keisler, D.H., Roberts, R.M. Biol. Reprod. (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. Molecular evidence for a critical period in mural trophoblast development in bovine blastocysts. Degrelle, S.A., Campion, E., Cabau, C., Piumi, F., Reinaud, P., Richard, C., Renard, J.P., Hue, I. Dev. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Sexual dimorphism among bovine embryos in their ability to make the transition to expanded blastocyst and in the expression of the signaling molecule IFN-tau. Larson, M.A., Kimura, K., Kubisch, H.M., Roberts, R.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Pepsin-inhibitory activity of the uterine serpins. Mathialagan, N., Hansen, T.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Ketoacids attenuate glucose uptake in human trophoblasts isolated from first-trimester chorionic villi. Shubert, P.J., Gordon, M.C., Landon, M.B., Gabbe, S.G., Kniss, D.A. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Serum free estriol and estriol glucuronide fractions in hydatidiform mole measured by radioimmunoassay. Dawood, M.Y., Brown, J.B., Newnam, K.L. Obstetrics and gynecology. (1977) [Pubmed]
  11. Aminophospholipid translocase activity in JEG-3; a choriocarcinoma model of cytotrophoblast differentiation. Obringer, A.R., Dean, K.W., Channel, S.R., Rote, N.S. Placenta (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. The effects of hypoxanthine on methotrexate-induced differentiation of cultured human choriocarcinoma (BeWo) cells. Burres, N.S., Cass, C.E. Biochem. Cell Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. The genes for the trophoblast interferons and the related interferon-alpha II possess distinct 5'-promoter and 3'-flanking sequences. Hansen, T.R., Leaman, D.W., Cross, J.C., Mathialagan, N., Bixby, J.A., Roberts, R.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Regulation of interferon-tau (IFN-tau) gene promoters by growth factors that target the Ets-2 composite enhancer: a possible model for maternal control of IFN-tau production by the conceptus during early pregnancy. Ezashi, T., Roberts, R.M. Endocrinology (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Structure of an interferon-alpha 2 gene expressed in the bovine conceptus early in gestation. Stewart, H.J., McCann, S.H., Flint, A.P. J. Mol. Endocrinol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. In vitro production of haploid germ cells from fresh or frozen-thawed testicular cells of neonatal bulls. Lee, D.R., Kaproth, M.T., Parks, J.E. Biol. Reprod. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. A comparative study on the immunological effects of bovine and porcine thymic extracts: induction of lymphoproliferative response and enhancement of interleukin-2, gamma-interferon and tumor necrotic factor production in vitro on cord blood lymphocytes. Lin, C.Y., Low, T.L. Immunopharmacology (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. Polymorphic forms of expressed bovine interferon-tau genes: relative transcript abundance during early placental development, promoter sequences of genes and biological activity of protein products. Ealy, A.D., Larson, S.F., Liu, L., Alexenko, A.P., Winkelman, G.L., Kubisch, H.M., Bixby, J.A., Roberts, R.M. Endocrinology (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. IFN-tau: a novel subtype I IFN1. Structural characteristics, non-ubiquitous expression, structure-function relationships, a pregnancy hormonal embryonic signal and cross-species therapeutic potentialities. Martal, J.L., Chêne, N.M., Huynh, L.P., L'Haridon, R.M., Reinaud, P.B., Guillomot, M.W., Charlier, M.A., Charpigny, S.Y. Biochimie (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Interferon-tau and interferon-alpha interact with the same receptors in bovine endometrium. Use of a readily iodinatable form of recombinant interferon-tau for binding studies. Li, J., Roberts, R.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Purification, characterization, and cDNA cloning of a Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor secreted by the porcine uterus. Stallings-Mann, M.L., Burke, M.G., Trout, W.E., Roberts, R.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Estrogen synthetase (aromatase) activity in primary culture of human term placental cells: effects of cell preparation, growth medium, and serum on adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate response. Lobo, J.O., Bellino, F.L. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1989) [Pubmed]
  23. Interconversion of cortisol and cortisone in baboon trophoblast and decidua cells in culture. Baggia, S., Albrecht, E.D., Babischkin, J.S., Pepe, G.J. Endocrinology (1990) [Pubmed]
  24. Expression of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase in bovine endometrium: coexpression with cyclooxygenase type 2 and regulation by interferon-tau. Parent, J., Chapdelaine, P., Sirois, J., Fortier, M.A. Endocrinology (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Cloning of interferon-stimulated gene 17: the promoter and nuclear proteins that regulate transcription. Perry, D.J., Austin, K.J., Hansen, T.R. Mol. Endocrinol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Interferon-tau stimulates granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor gene expression in bovine lymphocytes and endometrial stromal cells. Emond, V., Asselin, E., Fortier, M.A., Murphy, B.D., Lambert, R.D. Biol. Reprod. (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. Matrix-metalloproteinases-2 and -9 production in bovine endometrial cell culture. Hashizume, K., Takahashi, T., Shimizu, M., Todoroki, J., Shimada, A., Hirata, M., Sato, T., Ito, A. J. Reprod. Dev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. Interferon tau: a novel pregnancy recognition signal. Bazer, F.W., Spencer, T.E., Ott, T.L. Am. J. Reprod. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  29. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the endometrial epithelium of the cow is up-regulated during early pregnancy and in response to intrauterine infusions of interferon-tau. Emond, V., MacLaren, L.A., Kimmins, S., Arosh, J.A., Fortier, M.A., Lambert, R.D. Biol. Reprod. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Pregnancy and interferon-tau induce conjugation of bovine ubiquitin cross-reactive protein to cytosolic uterine proteins. Johnson, G.A., Austin, K.J., Van Kirk, E.A., Hansen, T.R. Biol. Reprod. (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. Isolation, characterization and immunocytochemical localization of bovine trophoblast protein-1. Lifsey, B.J., Baumbach, G.A., Godkin, J.D. Biol. Reprod. (1989) [Pubmed]
  32. Molecular cloning and characterization of complementary deoxyribonucleic acids corresponding to bovine trophoblast protein-1: a comparison with ovine trophoblast protein-1 and bovine interferon-alpha II. Imakawa, K., Hansen, T.R., Malathy, P.V., Anthony, R.V., Polites, H.G., Marotti, K.R., Roberts, R.M. Mol. Endocrinol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  33. Assessment of expression of the receptor for colony-stimulating factor-1 (fms) in bovine trophoblast. Beauchamp, J.L., Croy, B.A. Biol. Reprod. (1991) [Pubmed]
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