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Gene Review

Prlr  -  prolactin receptor

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Lactogen receptor, PRL-R, Prolactin receptor
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Disease relevance of Prlr


Psychiatry related information on Prlr


High impact information on Prlr

  • Evidence is accumulating that the secretory pattern of GH in the rat also affects various sexually differentiated hepatic characteristics such as steroid metabolism and prolactin receptor concentration [7].
  • A prolactin receptor, present in adult female rat liver, can be induced in males by estrogen [8].
  • Transient cotransfections in HepG2 cells revealed that PRL inducibility (2.5-3-fold) required coexpression of the long form of the PRL receptor (PRLRL) and Stat5 [9].
  • For control NMU-induced rat mammary tumors, total PRL receptor levels were 6.35 +/- 1.40 fmol/mg protein, 7.20 +/- 2.40 fmol/mg protein for NMU-induced rat mammary tumors treated with o-PRL, and 6.81 +/- 2.34 fmol/mg protein for NMU-induced rat mammary tumors treated with CB-154 [10].
  • Two lambda gt11 clones containing fragments of cDNA encoding the prolactin receptor from rabbit mammary gland were isolated using a rat liver prolactin receptor cDNA probe [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Prlr

  • The PRL-R in the arcuate nucleus was significantly increased in bromocriptine-treated rats and decreased in haloperidol-treated rats, suggesting that the PRL-R in this nucleus is regulated by mechanisms related to both the stimulus of suckling itself and suckling-induced hyperprolactinemia [12].

Biological context of Prlr

  • However, the cDNA sequence is missing 594 base pairs in the cytoplasmic domain compared with the long form of the PRL-R [13].
  • A cDNA was isolated from an Nb2-Sp cDNA library, which contains 1446 base pairs identical to the nucleotide sequence of the long form of the rat PRL-R [13].
  • The identification of a modified long form of PRL-R in the Nb2 cell line should help localize domains of the PRL-R involved in signal transduction and further the investigation of prolactin's role in immune cell proliferation [13].
  • The aim of the present study was to determine the time-course of changes in PRL-R mRNA levels during pregnancy and/or lactation, and to determine relative levels of the two forms (short and/or long form) of receptor mRNA in specific brain regions [14].
  • These results indicate that PRL-R mRNA expression is almost consistent with PRL binding sites except for elongated spermatids and spermatozoa, and suggest that PRL may have direct effects on spermatogenic cells [15].

Anatomical context of Prlr


Associations of Prlr with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Prlr


Regulatory relationships of Prlr


Other interactions of Prlr

  • Polymerase chain reaction amplification of genomic DNA prepared from PRL-dependent and -independent cell lines suggests that this form of PRL-R results from a deletion in the PRL-R gene [13].
  • Here we tested brain PRL-receptor (PRL-R)-mediated effects on anxiety, maternal behaviour, HPA axis and oxytocin stress responses in lactating rats [2].
  • In contrast, A917 anti PRL-R also internalised in endosomes and in microvesicular bodies, was carried out to the Golgi apparatus and to the lumen of the acini after 5 min of incubation at 37 degrees C. These results suggest that an intracellular sorting occurs in the presence of the hormone or the different antibodies [28].
  • Together these observations suggest that PRLR stimulation of pim-1 transcription occurs independently of a requirement for signaling through a Jak2/Stat mechanism [29].
  • To determine whether PRAP associates with either the long or the short form of the PRL receptor, fusion proteins with glutathione S-transferase containing the cytoplasmic domain of the long or short form of the PRL receptor were produced, purified, and incubated with luteal proteins [22].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Prlr

  • We also show that when measured after 7 h of RSW, microinjection of the PRLR antisense oligonucleotide into these areas down-regulates RSW-enhanced expression of PRLR-L protein in the PVN and increases the plasma PRL level, but does not affect plasma levels of another hormone, GH [1].
  • By using monoclonal antibodies raised against purified rat liver PRL-R, the distribution of PRL-R was investigated by immunohistochemistry in brains of the estrogen-treated ovariectomized (OVX+E) rat and the adult male rat [17].
  • RT-PCR analysis revealed the short and long form of PRL-R mRNA in both spleen and thymus at every age tested [30].
  • Three approaches were taken to measure PRL-R expression: (i) polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); (ii) antibody to PRL-R and Western blotting; (iii) antibody to PRL-R and flow cytometry [30].
  • In order to confirm the presence of PRL receptors on specific cell types of the anterior pituitary, immunocytology on ultrathin frozen sections was carried out using monoclonal antibodies specific to the rat PRL receptor [31].


  1. Prolactin receptor knockdown in the rat paraventricular nucleus by a morpholino-antisense oligonucleotide causes hypocalcemia and stress gastric erosion. Fujikawa, T., Tamura, K., Kawase, T., Mori, Y., Sakai, R.R., Sakuma, K., Yamaguch, A., Ogata, M., Soya, H., Nakashima, K. Endocrinology (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Increased hypothalamic expression of prolactin in lactation: involvement in behavioural and neuroendocrine stress responses. Torner, L., Toschi, N., Nava, G., Clapp, C., Neumann, I.D. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Cross-linking of G-proteins to the prolactin receptor in rat NB2 lymphoma cells. Too, C.K., Shiu, R.P., Friesen, H.G. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Expression and distribution of the prolactin receptor in normal rat liver and in experimental liver cirrhosis. Kloehn, S., Otte, C., Korsanke, M., Arendt, T., Clemens, A., Glasow, A., Bornstein, S.R., Fölsch, U.R., Mönig, H. Horm. Metab. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. A x C rat prostate adenocarcinoma: initial characterization of testosterone regulation of hormone receptors of cultured cancer cells and derived tumors. Shain, S.A., Boesel, R.W., Kalter, S.S., Heberling, R.L. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1981) [Pubmed]
  6. Induction of brain prolactin receptor long-form mRNA expression and maternal behavior in pup-contacted male rats: promotion by prolactin administration and suppression by female contact. Sakaguchi, K., Tanaka, M., Ohkubo, T., Doh-ura, K., Fujikawa, T., Sudo, S., Nakashima, K. Neuroendocrinology (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Sexual dimorphism in the control of growth hormone secretion. Jansson, J.O., Edén, S., Isaksson, O. Endocr. Rev. (1985) [Pubmed]
  8. Prolactin receptors in rat liver: possible induction by prolactin. Posner, B.I., Kelly, P.A., Friesen, H.G. Science (1975) [Pubmed]
  9. Regulation of the rat liver sodium-dependent bile acid cotransporter gene by prolactin. Mediation of transcriptional activation by Stat5. Ganguly, T.C., O'Brien, M.L., Karpen, S.J., Hyde, J.F., Suchy, F.J., Vore, M. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. N-nitroso-N-methylurea-induced mammary carcinogenesis: effect of prolactin on expression of Ia antigen by tumor cells. Bernard, D.J., Maurizis, J.C., Chassagne, J., Chollet, P., Plagne, R. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1986) [Pubmed]
  11. Identification and sequence analysis of a second form of prolactin receptor by molecular cloning of complementary DNA from rabbit mammary gland. Edery, M., Jolicoeur, C., Levi-Meyrueis, C., Dusanter-Fourt, I., Pétridou, B., Boutin, J.M., Lesueur, L., Kelly, P.A., Djiane, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. Mechanisms for suckling-induced changes in expression of prolactin receptor in the hypothalamus of the lactating rat. Pi, X., Voogt, J.L. Brain Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. A prolactin-dependent immune cell line (Nb2) expresses a mutant form of prolactin receptor. Ali, S., Pellegrini, I., Kelly, P.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Quantitation of prolactin receptor mRNA in the maternal rat brain during pregnancy and lactation. Augustine, R.A., Kokay, I.C., Andrews, Z.B., Ladyman, S.R., Grattan, D.R. J. Mol. Endocrinol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Prolactin receptor expression in rat spermatogenic cells. Hondo, E., Kurohmaru, M., Sakai, S., Ogawa, K., Hayashi, Y. Biol. Reprod. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Detection of prolactin receptor (PRL-R) mRNA in the rat hypothalamus and pituitary gland. Chiu, S., Koos, R.D., Wise, P.M. Endocrinology (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Distribution of prolactin receptor immunoreactivity in the brain of estrogen-treated, ovariectomized rats. Pi, X.J., Grattan, D.R. J. Comp. Neurol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Steroid-induced alterations in mRNA expression of the long form of the prolactin receptor in the medial preoptic area of female rats: Effects of exposure to a pregnancy-like regimen of progesterone and estradiol. Bridges, R.S., Hays, L.E. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Participation of prolactin receptors and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and MAP kinase pathways in the increase in pancreatic islet mass and sensitivity to glucose during pregnancy. Amaral, M.E., Cunha, D.A., Anhê, G.F., Ueno, M., Carneiro, E.M., Velloso, L.A., Bordin, S., Boschero, A.C. J. Endocrinol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Expression of mRNA for prolactin receptor (long form) in dopamine and pro-opiomelanocortin neurones in the arcuate nucleus of non-pregnant and lactating rats. Kokay, I.C., Grattan, D.R. J. Neuroendocrinol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Interaction of prolactin (PRL) binding sites with PRL receptor antibodies in rat liver cells in suspension culture: effect of inhibitors of cellular functions. Ferland, L.H., Rosa, A.A., Kelly, P.A. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  22. Cloning and characterization of an ovarian-specific protein that associates with the short form of the prolactin receptor. Duan, W.R., Linzer, D.I., Gibori, G. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. G-proteins modulate prolactin- and interleukin-2-stimulated mitogenesis in rat Nb2 lymphoma cells. Too, C.K., Murphy, P.R., Friesen, H.G. Endocrinology (1989) [Pubmed]
  24. Regulation of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y messenger ribonucleic acid expression during lactation: role of prolactin. Chen, P., Smith, M.S. Endocrinology (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Involvement of PI3'-K, mitogen-activated protein kinase and protein kinase B in the up-regulation of the expression of nNOSalpha and nNOSbeta splicing variants induced by PRL-receptor activation in GH3 cells. Secondo, A., Sirabella, R., Formisano, L., D'Alessio, A., Castaldo, P., Amoroso, S., Ingleton, P., Di Renzo, G., Annunziato, L. J. Neurochem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Induction of relaxin messenger RNA expression in response to prolactin receptor activation requires protein kinase C delta signaling. Peters, C.A., Maizels, E.T., Robertson, M.C., Shiu, R.P., Soloff, M.S., Hunzicker-Dunn, M. Mol. Endocrinol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. Nuclear translocation of STAT5 and increased expression of Fos related antigens (FRAs) in hypothalamic dopaminergic neurons after prolactin administration. Lerant, A., Kanyicska, B., Freeman, M.E. Brain Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Prolactin transit through mammary epithelial cells and appearance in milk. Ollivier-Bousquet, M., Kann, G., Durand, G. Endocrine regulations. (1993) [Pubmed]
  29. Transcriptional regulation of pim-1 by prolactin: independence of a requirement for Jak2/Stat signaling. Buckley, A.R. J. Neuroimmunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. Prolactin receptor gene expression in rat splenocytes and thymocytes from birth to adulthood. Güneş, H., Mastro, A.M. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Prolactin receptor immunoreactivity in rat anterior pituitary. Morel, G., Ouhtit, A., Kelly, P.A. Neuroendocrinology (1994) [Pubmed]
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