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Gene Review

PTGDS  -  prostaglandin D2 synthase 21kDa (brain)

Bos taurus

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Disease relevance of PTGDS


High impact information on PTGDS

  • The accumulation of PGDS, a KSPG that does not interact with collagen, was not affected by ascorbate [2].
  • However, compared with the keratocytes, the fibroblasts possessed no aldehyde dehydrogenase and synthesized significantly higher levels of decorin and significantly lower levels of prostaglandin D synthase (PGDS) and keratan sulfate [3].
  • OBJECTIVE : We examined the role of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) in the formation of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 following interleukin-1beta (IL-1) stimulation in bovine endothelial cells (EC) transfected with lipocaline-type PGD2 synthase (L-PGDS) genes [4].
  • Additionally, these cells produce PGDS, a known retinoid transporter, as a KSPG [5].
  • PGDS isolated from corneal extracts was not keratanase sensitive but was susceptible to endo-beta-galactosidase, suggesting that it contains unsulfated polylactosamine chains in native tissue and is therefore present as a glycoprotein [5].

Biological context of PTGDS


Anatomical context of PTGDS


Associations of PTGDS with chemical compounds

  • Prostaglandin (PG) D2 represented approximately 10% of the PGs produced in the lumen, irrespective of the presence or absence of luminal PGDS, suggesting that this protein is not involved in PGD2 biosynthesis [8].
  • The enzymatic activity of PGDS was estimated in the ram by in vitro incubation of epididymal-isolated tubules with radioactive arachidonic acid [8].
  • In the ram and stallion, cDNA and deduced protein sequences of PGDS were obtained by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and showed that PGDS possessed the sequences involved in the three-dimensional folding characteristic of the lipocalin family and a cysteine at position 65 that is involved in the enzymatic activity [8].
  • It is likely that PGDS, which has a structure similar to that of lipocalin, functions as a lipophilic carrier protein, because we have shown that epididymal PGDS binds retinoic acid and testosterone in vitro [8].
  • Subsequent culture of the fibroblasts in serum-free medium did not restore aldehyde dehydrogenase to keratocyte levels but did restore the cell morphology to a more dendritic appearance and returned the synthesis of decorin, PGDS, and keratan sulfate to keratocyte levels [3].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PTGDS

  • Identity was confirmed by Western blot analysis using antisera to recombinant PGDS [5].


  1. Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase in milk: a new biomarker for bovine mastitis. Baeker, R., Haebel, S., Schlatterer, K., Schlatterer, B. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Stimulation of collagen synthesis by insulin and proteoglycan accumulation by ascorbate in bovine keratocytes in vitro. Musselmann, K., Kane, B., Alexandrou, B., Hassell, J.R. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Partial restoration of the keratocyte phenotype to bovine keratocytes made fibroblastic by serum. Berryhill, B.L., Kader, R., Kane, B., Birk, D.E., Feng, J., Hassell, J.R. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Endogenous prostaglandin D2 synthesis reduces an increase in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 following interleukin stimulation in bovine endothelial cells. Negoro, H., Soo Shin, W., Hakamada-Taguchi, R., Eguchi, N., Urade, Y., Goto, A., Toyo-Oka, T., Fujita, T., Omata, M., Uehara, Y. J. Hypertens. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Production of prostaglandin D synthase as a keratan sulfate proteoglycan by cultured bovine keratocytes. Berryhill, B.L., Beales, M.P., Hassell, J.R. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Mapping the prostaglandin-D synthase gene (PTGDS ) to bovine chromosome 1. Roncoleta, M., Kata, S.R., Womack, J.E., Amaral, M.E. Anim. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Immunocytochemical localization of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase in the bull testis and epididymis and on ejaculated sperm. Gerena, R.L., Irikura, D., Eguchi, N., Urade, Y., Killian, G.J. Biol. Reprod. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Mammalian lipocalin-type prostaglandin D2 synthase in the fluids of the male genital tract: putative biochemical and physiological functions. Fouchécourt, S., Charpigny, G., Reinaud, P., Dumont, P., Dacheux, J.L. Biol. Reprod. (2002) [Pubmed]
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