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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Acrosome

  • In cases of male infertility, use of NECA in sperm handling for IVF should be evaluated as a means to improve capacitation without increasing the possibility of a premature spontaneous acrosome reaction [1].
  • Ascites fluid from mice injected with two of these hybridomas (8C4.1 and 8C10.5) was negative in immobilization and agglutination methods, however, acrosome positive on methanol fixed sperm and plasma membrane positive on unfixed sperm in indirect immunofluorescence [2].
  • Pertussis toxin-sensitive guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins) have previously been shown to mediate the zone pellucida-induced acrosome reaction in mammalian sperm [3].
  • This study was designed to investigate the mechanisms of infertility in rats treated with SASP at a dose of 600 mg/kg for 28 days, including monitoring of sperm motility using computer associated sperm analysis system and acrosome reaction by FITC-concanavalin A lectin staining [4].
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine whether mannose ligand receptor and acrosome reaction deficits in sperm from men with varicocele are related to the transition metal content of their semen [5].

High impact information on Acrosome

  • These experiments suggest that TCP-1 may be essential for transport of proteins through the exocytic pathway in all cells and required in large amounts for acrosome formation in developing spermatids [6].
  • The distribution in spermatids suggested that TCP-1 was localized to structures often associated with the developing acrosome [6].
  • Monoclonal antibody to a membrane glycoprotein inhibits the acrosome reaction and associated Ca2+ and H+ fluxes of sea urchin sperm [7].
  • Sperm motility appears to be affected mainly through an increase in intracellular cAMP, whereas the acrosome reaction depends more directly on cyclic GMP synthesis [8].
  • Lack of acrosome formation in Hrb-deficient mice [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Acrosome


Biological context of Acrosome

  • Group II mAbs, at comparable levels of cell surface binding, neither inhibit the egg jelly-induced acrosome reaction nor cause increases in [Ca2+]i. In this paper, we investigate the ability of these mAbs to induce the cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of sperm histone H1 [15].
  • Because of RTG-r has galactose binding affinity, is present on surfaces of Sertoli and developing meiotic and postmeiotic spermatogenic cells, and overlies a region of the intact acrosome on epididymal sperm, RTG-r may have a role in spermatogenesis and in events leading to sperm-egg recognition [16].
  • After binding the egg, sperm-bound oligosaccharides on ZP3 induce the acrosome reaction by receptor aggregation, presumably involving GalTase [17].
  • Lipid-binding serum proteins in uterine fluid are attributed with removing a sterol barrier to the Ca2+-facilitated membrane fusion that initiates the acrosome reaction [18].
  • Binding of ZP3 induces exocytosis of the sperm acrosome, whose contents are believed to digest a penetration slit in the zona matrix through which sperm reach the egg [19].

Anatomical context of Acrosome

  • Here we report that male mice with a null mutation in Hrb are infertile and display round-headed spermatozoa that lack an acrosome [9].
  • Detachment of the plasma membrane from glutaraldehyde-fixed cells exposed the cytoplasmic surface of the acrosome to the lectin markers; freeze-fractured halves of the acrosomal membrane were marked by "fracture-label" (Aguas, A. P., and P. Pinto da Silva, 1983, J. Cell Biol. 97:1356-1364) [20].
  • Calcium imaging studies revealed that the [Ca2+]i increases induced by exposure to ZP and progesterone started at different sites within the sperm head, indicating that these agonists induce the acrosome reaction via different Ca2+ mechanisms [21].
  • The block of PGE1-induced Ca2+ transients and acrosome reaction by physiological Zn2+ concentrations highlights a role of Zn2+ as an endogenous Ca2+ channel blocker present in seminal plasma protecting sperm from premature PGE1-evoked increases in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations [22].
  • Spermatozoa that had not undergone the acrosome reaction exhibited four distinct regions of calmodulin-specific immunofluorescence: around the acrosome, in a band across the lower third of the head, and in two localized areas at the base and tip of the flagellum [23].

Associations of Acrosome with chemical compounds

  • These results indicate that PLCdelta4 is an important enzyme for intracellular [Ca2+]i mobilization in the ZP-induced acrosome reaction and for sustained [Ca2+]i increases through SOC induced by ZP and progesterone in sperm [21].
  • Within 7-10 min of induction of the acrosome reaction with Ca2+ and A23187, 90-100% of the acrosome-reacted sperm population no longer demonstrated binding of the PH-20 antibody on the posterior head, but showed binding instead on the inner acrosomal membrane [24].
  • We have developed an assay for detecting the acrosome reaction in mouse sperm using chlortetracycline (CTC) as a fluorescent probe [25].
  • Neither nigericin added alone (0.9 mM K+) nor nigericin plus 12 mM K+ added to a low Ca2+ (0.35 mM) system resulted in acrosome reactions [26].
  • The acrosome reaction was induced with ionomycin [27].

Gene context of Acrosome

  • In this study we provide evidence that MCP on sperm that have undergone the acrosome reaction specifically binds dimeric C3b and that human sperm acrosomal proteases released during the acrosome reaction directly cleave C3, facilitating its binding to MCP [28].
  • In this study, we purified the 55-kDa mouse protein from soluble protein extracts released from epididymal sperm by acrosome reaction and identified as a hyaluronidase, Hyal5 [29].
  • Lack of acrosome formation in mice lacking a Golgi protein, GOPC [30].
  • Therefore, mutations in Herc2 lead to the neuromuscular secretory vesicle and sperm acrosome defects, other developmental abnormalities and juvenile lethality of jdf2 mice [31].
  • Similarly, introduction of Syt VIII-specific antibodies was equally effective in inhibiting the acrosome fusion [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Acrosome


  1. Stimulation of human sperm during capacitation in vitro by an adenosine agonist with specificity for A2 receptors. Fénichel, P., Gharib, A., Emiliozzi, C., Donzeau, M., Ménézo, Y. Biol. Reprod. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Inhibition of fertility in rabbits by monoclonal antibodies against sperm. Naz, R.K., Saxe, J.M., Menge, A.C. Biol. Reprod. (1983) [Pubmed]
  3. Differential sensitivity of progesterone- and zona pellucida-induced acrosome reactions to pertussis toxin. Tesarik, J., Carreras, A., Mendoza, C. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Effects of sulfasalazine on sperm acrosome reaction and gene expression in the male reproductive organs of rats. Fukushima, T., Kato, M., Adachi, T., Hamada, Y., Horimoto, M., Komiyama, M., Mori, C., Horii, I. Toxicol. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. A potential role for cadmium in the etiology of varicocele-associated infertility. Benoff, S., Hurley, I.R., Barcia, M., Mandel, F.S., Cooper, G.W., Hershlag, A. Fertil. Steril. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. The t complex polypeptide 1 (TCP-1) is associated with the cytoplasmic aspect of Golgi membranes. Willison, K., Lewis, V., Zuckerman, K.S., Cordell, J., Dean, C., Miller, K., Lyon, M.F., Marsh, M. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Monoclonal antibody to a membrane glycoprotein inhibits the acrosome reaction and associated Ca2+ and H+ fluxes of sea urchin sperm. Trimmer, J.S., Trowbridge, I.S., Vacquier, V.D. Cell (1985) [Pubmed]
  8. Guanylate cyclase activity and sperm function. Revelli, A., Ghigo, D., Moffa, F., Massobrio, M., Tur-Kaspa, I. Endocr. Rev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Lack of acrosome formation in Hrb-deficient mice. Kang-Decker, N., Mantchev, G.T., Juneja, S.C., McNiven, M.A., van Deursen, J.M. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Calcitonin, angiotensin II and FPP significantly modulate mouse sperm function. Fraser, L.R., Pondel, M.D., Vinson, G.P. Mol. Hum. Reprod. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Inhibition of sperm-zona binding by suramin, a potential 'lead' compound for design of new anti-fertility agents. Jones, R., Parry, R., Lo Leggio, L., Nickel, P. Mol. Hum. Reprod. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. A synthetic decapeptide from a conserved ZP3 protein domain induces the G protein-regulated acrosome reaction in bovine spermatozoa. Hinsch, E., Aires, V.A., Hedrich, F., Oehninger, S., Hinsch, K.D. Theriogenology (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Ketone bodies could support the motility but not the acrosome reaction of mouse sperm. Tanaka, H., Takahashi, T., Iguchi, N., Kitamura, K., Miyagawa, Y., Tsujimura, A., Matsumiya, K., Okuyama, A., Nishimune, Y. Int. J. Androl. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Influence of urogenital infections on sperm functions. Köhn, F.M., Erdmann, I., Oeda, T., el Mulla, K.F., Schiefer, H.G., Schill, W.B. Andrologia (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Monoclonal antibodies to a membrane glycoprotein induce the phosphorylation of histone H1 in sea urchin spermatozoa. Vacquier, V.D., Moy, G.W., Trimmer, J.S., Ebina, Y., Porter, D.C. J. Cell Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  16. Identification of rat testis galactosyl receptor using antibodies to liver asialoglycoprotein receptor: purification and localization on surfaces of spermatogenic cells and sperm. Abdullah, M., Kierszenbaum, A.L. J. Cell Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Overexpressing sperm surface beta 1,4-galactosyltransferase in transgenic mice affects multiple aspects of sperm-egg interactions. Youakim, A., Hathaway, H.J., Miller, D.J., Gong, X., Shur, B.D. J. Cell Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Timing of fertilization in mammals: sperm cholesterol/phospholipid ratio as a determinant of the capacitation interval. Davis, B.K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  19. Sperm require beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase to penetrate through the egg zona pellucida. Miller, D.J., Gong, X., Shur, B.D. Development (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. The acrosomal membrane of boar sperm: a Golgi-derived membrane poor in glycoconjugates. Aguas, A.P., Pinto da Silva, P. J. Cell Biol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  21. Phospholipase Cdelta4 is required for Ca2+ mobilization essential for acrosome reaction in sperm. Fukami, K., Yoshida, M., Inoue, T., Kurokawa, M., Fissore, R.A., Yoshida, N., Mikoshiba, K., Takenawa, T. J. Cell Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. A new prostaglandin E receptor mediates calcium influx and acrosome reaction in human spermatozoa. Schaefer, M., Hofmann, T., Schultz, G., Gudermann, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. Calmodulin localization in mammalian spermatozoa. Jones, H.P., Lenz, R.W., Palevitz, B.A., Cormier, M.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1980) [Pubmed]
  24. Localized surface antigens of guinea pig sperm migrate to new regions prior to fertilization. Myles, D.G., Primakoff, P. J. Cell Biol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  25. Mouse gamete interactions during fertilization in vitro. Chlortetracycline as a fluorescent probe for the mouse sperm acrosome reaction. Saling, P.M., Storey, B.T. J. Cell Biol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  26. Potassium ion influx and Na+,K+-ATPase activity are required for the hamster sperm acrosome reaction. Mrsny, R.J., Meizel, S. J. Cell Biol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  27. Regulatory mechanisms of the acrosome reaction revealed by multiview microscopy of single starfish sperm. Sase, I., Okinaga, T., Hoshi, M., Feigenson, G.W., Kinosita, K. J. Cell Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. The role of complement component C3b and its receptors in sperm-oocyte interaction. Anderson, D.J., Abbott, A.F., Jack, R.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  29. Identification of a hyaluronidase, Hyal5, involved in penetration of mouse sperm through cumulus mass. Kim, E., Baba, D., Kimura, M., Yamashita, M., Kashiwabara, S., Baba, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Lack of acrosome formation in mice lacking a Golgi protein, GOPC. Yao, R., Ito, C., Natsume, Y., Sugitani, Y., Yamanaka, H., Kuretake, S., Yanagida, K., Sato, A., Toshimori, K., Noda, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. The ancestral gene for transcribed, low-copy repeats in the Prader-Willi/Angelman region encodes a large protein implicated in protein trafficking, which is deficient in mice with neuromuscular and spermiogenic abnormalities. Ji, Y., Walkowicz, M.J., Buiting, K., Johnson, D.K., Tarvin, R.E., Rinchik, E.M., Horsthemke, B., Stubbs, L., Nicholls, R.D. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. Synaptotagmin VI and VIII and syntaxin 2 are essential for the mouse sperm acrosome reaction. Hutt, D.M., Baltz, J.M., Ngsee, J.K. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. Redistribution of mouse sperm surface galactosyltransferase after the acrosome reaction. Lopez, L.C., Shur, B.D. J. Cell Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  34. The initial molecular interaction between mouse sperm and the zona pellucida is a complex binding event. Thaler, C.D., Cardullo, R.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  35. Surface glycoproteins of human spermatozoa. Kallajoki, M., Virtanen, I., Suominen, J. J. Cell. Sci. (1986) [Pubmed]
  36. Studies on ram acrosin. Fluorimetric titratiion of operational molarity with 4-methylumbelliferyl p-guanidinobenzoate. Brown, C.R., Andani, Z., Hartree, E.F. Biochem. J. (1975) [Pubmed]
  37. Biochemical and morphological characterization of the intra-acrosomal antigen SP-10 from human sperm. Herr, J.C., Flickinger, C.J., Homyk, M., Klotz, K., John, E. Biol. Reprod. (1990) [Pubmed]
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