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Gene Review

Ptgds  -  prostaglandin D2 synthase (brain)

Mus musculus

Synonyms: 21kDa, Glutathione-independent PGD synthase, L-PGDS, Lipocalin-type prostaglandin-D synthase, PGD2, ...
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Disease relevance of Ptgds


Psychiatry related information on Ptgds


High impact information on Ptgds

  • Activated mast cells release various chemical mediators, including prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), whose role in allergic asthma has now been investigated by the generation of mice deficient in the PGD receptor (DP) [9].
  • In response to PGD2, CRTH2 induces intracellular Ca2+mobilization and chemotaxis in Th2 cells in a Galphai-dependent manner [10].
  • In addition, CRTH2, but not DP, mediates PGD2-dependent cell migration of blood eosinophils and basophils [10].
  • Taken together, we propose that the inhibition of LC migration could represent an additional stratagem for the schistosomes to escape the host immune system and that PGD2 may play a key role in the control of cutaneous immune responses [11].
  • KL at concentrations of 10 ng/ml elicited half-maximal eicosanoid generation and at concentrations of > 50 ng/ml elicited a maximal generation of approximately 15 ng LTC4 and 1 ng PGD2 per 10(6) cells, with 20% net beta-hexosaminidase release 10 min after stimulation [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of Ptgds


Biological context of Ptgds


Anatomical context of Ptgds

  • In contrast, prostaglandin-D-synthase (Ptgds) and lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) mRNA increase in basal forebrain of both strains after influenza infection [20].
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of wild-type mice identified the specific expression of L-PGDS in follicular melanocytes [1].
  • Methyl gallate (MG) is a medicinal herbal product that is isolated from Paeonia lactiflora that inhibits cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) dependent phases of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) generation in bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC) in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 values of 17.0 microM [17].
  • Finally, we showed by employing specific inhibitors that the causative signaling molecule is prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) and that PGD2 can induce Sox9 transcription in cultured XX gonads [21].
  • We examined the effect of injection of 15d-PGJ(2) (30 ng twice a day) or PGDS expressing-retrovirally transfected fibroblast on BLM-induced dermal sclerosis [22].

Associations of Ptgds with chemical compounds

  • MITF may modulate the production of prostaglandin D(2) by activating the L-PGDS gene in melanocytes [1].
  • Mechanical scratching increased PGD2, PGE2, PGI2 and PGF(2 alpha) [23].
  • In the normal skin of COX-1-deficient mice, skin PGD2 level was lower than that of wild-type mice, although PGE2, PGI2 and PGF(2 alpha) levels were almost equal to those of wild type [23].
  • 15-d PGJ(2) and PGDS-expressing cells also suppressed degranulation of cultured mast cells and histamine release by these cells [22].
  • We evaluated the effect of treatment with 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)) or the injection of prostaglandin D(2) synthase (PGDS) cDNA expressing-retrovirally transfected fibroblasts on bleomycin (BLM)-induced scleroderma-like skin sclerosis [22].
  • These results indicated that the two binding sites for PGH(2) and retinoic acid in the large cavity of L-PGDS were responsible for the broad ligand specificity of L-PGDS and the non-competitive inhibition of L-PGDS activity by retinoic acid [24].

Physical interactions of Ptgds


Regulatory relationships of Ptgds


Other interactions of Ptgds


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ptgds


  1. Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase as a melanocyte marker regulated by MITF. Takeda, K., Yokoyama, S., Aburatani, H., Masuda, T., Han, F., Yoshizawa, M., Yamaki, N., Yamamoto, H., Eguchi, N., Urade, Y., Shibahara, S. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Perineuronal oligodendrocytes protect against neuronal apoptosis through the production of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase in a genetic demyelinating model. Taniike, M., Mohri, I., Eguchi, N., Beuckmann, C.T., Suzuki, K., Urade, Y. J. Neurosci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Accelerated glucose intolerance, nephropathy, and atherosclerosis in prostaglandin D2 synthase knock-out mice. Ragolia, L., Palaia, T., Hall, C.E., Maesaka, J.K., Eguchi, N., Urade, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Pronounced eosinophilic lung inflammation and Th2 cytokine release in human lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase transgenic mice. Fujitani, Y., Kanaoka, Y., Aritake, K., Uodome, N., Okazaki-Hatake, K., Urade, Y. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Structural and functional characterization of HQL-79, an orally selective inhibitor of human hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase. Aritake, K., Kado, Y., Inoue, T., Miyano, M., Urade, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Protective effect of prostaglandins D2, E1 and I2 against cerebral hypoxia/anoxia in mice. Masuda, Y., Ochi, Y., Ochi, Y., Karasawa, T., Hatano, N., Kadokawa, T., Shimizu, M. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  7. Effect of chronic REM sleep deprivation on pituitary, hypothalamus and hippocampus PGE2 and PGD2 biosynthesis in the mouse. Moussard, C., Alber, D., Mozer, J.L., Henry, J.C. Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. PGD2 effects on rodent behavior and EEG patterns in cats. Laychock, S.G., Johnson, D.N., Harris, L.S. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (1980) [Pubmed]
  9. Prostaglandin D2 as a mediator of allergic asthma. Matsuoka, T., Hirata, M., Tanaka, H., Takahashi, Y., Murata, T., Kabashima, K., Sugimoto, Y., Kobayashi, T., Ushikubi, F., Aze, Y., Eguchi, N., Urade, Y., Yoshida, N., Kimura, K., Mizoguchi, A., Honda, Y., Nagai, H., Narumiya, S. Science (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Prostaglandin D2 selectively induces chemotaxis in T helper type 2 cells, eosinophils, and basophils via seven-transmembrane receptor CRTH2. Hirai, H., Tanaka, K., Yoshie, O., Ogawa, K., Kenmotsu, K., Takamori, Y., Ichimasa, M., Sugamura, K., Nakamura, M., Takano, S., Nagata, K. J. Exp. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Role of the parasite-derived prostaglandin D2 in the inhibition of epidermal Langerhans cell migration during schistosomiasis infection. Angeli, V., Faveeuw, C., Roye, O., Fontaine, J., Teissier, E., Capron, A., Wolowczuk, I., Capron, M., Trottein, F. J. Exp. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. The immediate phase of c-kit ligand stimulation of mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells elicits rapid leukotriene C4 generation through posttranslational activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 and 5-lipoxygenase. Murakami, M., Austen, K.F., Arm, J.P. J. Exp. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase is up-regulated in oligodendrocytes in lysosomal storage diseases and binds gangliosides. Mohri, I., Taniike, M., Okazaki, I., Kagitani-Shimono, K., Aritake, K., Kanekiyo, T., Yagi, T., Takikita, S., Kim, H.S., Urade, Y., Suzuki, K. J. Neurochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Mitogen-inducible prostaglandin G/H synthase is expressed in canine mastocytoma cells. Inase, N., Levine, T.M., Lazarus, S.C. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Development and evaluation of a practical ELISA for human urinary lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase. Oda, H., Shiina, Y., Seiki, K., Sato, N., Eguchi, N., Urade, Y. Clin. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Prostaglandin D2 inhibits prostaglandin E2-induced allodynia in conscious mice. Minami, T., Okuda-Ashitaka, E., Mori, H., Ito, S., Hayaishi, O. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Effects of methyl gallate on arachidonic acid metabolizing enzymes: Cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipoxygenase in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells. Kim, S.J., Jin, M., Lee, E., Moon, T.C., Quan, Z., Yang, J.H., Son, K.H., Kim, K.U., Son, J.K., Chang, H.W. Arch. Pharm. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Prostaglandin D2 induces nuclear import of the sex-determining factor SOX9 via its cAMP-PKA phosphorylation. Malki, S., Nef, S., Notarnicola, C., Thevenet, L., Gasca, S., Méjean, C., Berta, P., Poulat, F., Boizet-Bonhoure, B. EMBO J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Estradiol differentially regulates lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase transcript levels in the rodent brain: Evidence from high-density oligonucleotide arrays and in situ hybridization. Mong, J.A., Devidze, N., Frail, D.E., O'Connor, L.T., Samuel, M., Choleris, E., Ogawa, S., Pfaff, D.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. mRNA expression in mouse hypothalamus and basal forebrain during influenza infection: a novel model for sleep regulation. Ding, M., Toth, L.A. Physiol. Genomics (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Sertoli cell differentiation is induced both cell-autonomously and through prostaglandin signaling during mammalian sex determination. Wilhelm, D., Martinson, F., Bradford, S., Wilson, M.J., Combes, A.N., Beverdam, A., Bowles, J., Mizusaki, H., Koopman, P. Dev. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Inhibition of skin sclerosis by 15deoxy Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 and retrovirally transfected prostaglandin D synthase in a mouse model of bleomycin-induced scleroderma. Kohno, S., Endo, H., Hashimoto, A., Hayashi, I., Murakami, Y., Kitasato, H., Kojima, F., Kawai, S., Kondo, H. Biomed. Pharmacother. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Role of COX-1 and COX-2 on skin PGs biosynthesis by mechanical scratching in mice. Sugimoto, M., Arai, I., Futaki, N., Hashimoto, Y., Honma, Y., Nakaike, S. Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. NMR solution structure of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase: evidence for partial overlapping of catalytic pocket and retinoic acid-binding pocket within the central cavity. Shimamoto, S., Yoshida, T., Inui, T., Gohda, K., Kobayashi, Y., Fujimori, K., Tsurumura, T., Aritake, K., Urade, Y., Ohkubo, T. J. Biol. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  25. A novel pathway to enhance adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells by up-regulation of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase mediated by liver X receptor-activated sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c. Fujimori, K., Aritake, K., Urade, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  26. Type II phospholipase A2 is linked to cyclooxygenase-2-mediated delayed prostaglandin D2 generation by cultured mouse mast cells following FcepsilonRI- and cytokine-dependent activation. Ashraf, M.M., Murakami, M., Shimbara, S., Amakasu, Y., Atsumi, G., Kudo, I. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1996) [Pubmed]
  27. Specific regulation of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase in mouse heart by estrogen receptor beta. Otsuki, M., Gao, H., Dahlman-Wright, K., Ohlsson, C., Eguchi, N., Urade, Y., Gustafsson, J.A. Mol. Endocrinol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. Secretory phospholipase A2 receptor-mediated activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 in murine bone marrow-derived mast cells. Fonteh, A.N., Atsumi, G., LaPorte, T., Chilton, F.H. J. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. A heparin-sensitive phospholipase A2 and prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase-2 are functionally linked in the delayed phase of prostaglandin D2 generation in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells. Bingham, C.O., Murakami, M., Fujishima, H., Hunt, J.E., Austen, K.F., Arm, J.P. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. Inhibition of monosodium urate monohydrate crystal-induced acute inflammation by retrovirally transfected prostaglandin D synthase. Murakami, Y., Akahoshi, T., Hayashi, I., Endo, H., Hashimoto, A., Kono, S., Kondo, H., Kawai, S., Inoue, M., Kitasato, H. Arthritis Rheum. (2003) [Pubmed]
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