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Gene Review

BRF1  -  BRF1, RNA polymerase III transcription...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: B-related factor 1, BRF, BRF-1, GTF3B, HEL-S-76p, ...
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Disease relevance of BRF1

  • Melan-A- and EBV (BRF1) peptides were used and the frequency of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells was assessed using appropriate tetramers [1].
  • RESULTS: The conjugate showed concentration-dependent toxicity for the following prostate cancer cell lines: BRF 41 T>DU145>PC-3>LNCaP, according to their LH receptor capacities [2].
  • It was found that limbs with venous hypertension had a high skin resting blood flow (BRF) and an impaired veno-arteriolar reflex (VR) [3].
  • There was a marked improvement in both BRF and VR after elastic compression for three weeks and an association between this improvement and the rate of healing of the leg ulcers [3].

Psychiatry related information on BRF1

  • The BRF national prevalence estimate of chronic heavier drinking is 8.7 percent, equivalent to the 1979 National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse (NIAAA) estimate of 9 percent [4].

High impact information on BRF1

  • S92 phosphorylation of BRF1 did not impair ARE binding, but induced complex formation with the scaffold protein 14-3-3 [5].
  • Butyrate response factor (BRF1) belongs to the Tis11 family of CCCH zinc-finger proteins, which bind to mRNAs containing an AU-rich element (ARE) in their 3' untranslated region and promote their deadenylation and rapid degradation [5].
  • Brf1 is hyperphosphorylated in metaphase-arrested cells, but remains associated with promoters in condensed chromosomes, along with TBP [6].
  • By use of small interfering (si)RNA, independent evidence for an active role of BRF1 in mRNA degradation was obtained [7].
  • Mutant slowC carries frame-shift mutations in both BRF1 alleles, whereas slowB with intermediate decay kinetics is heterozygous [7].

Biological context of BRF1

  • Elevated expression of BRF1 decreased the level of the human inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2 (cIAP2) and increased the caspase-3 activity in HNSCC cells [8].
  • Our initial data demonstrated that the immediate-early gene butyrate response factor 1 ( BRF1) was upregulated in HTLV-1-infected cells [9].
  • BRF bound to TBP-DNA through the nonconserved C-terminal region and required 15 bp downstream of the TATA box and as little as 1 bp upstream of the TATA box for stable complex formation [10].
  • The abundance of both TBP and BRF decreases during F9 cell differentiation [11].
  • In this paper an epidemiological model with realistic demography is used to investigate the impact of the non-equilibrium conditions typical of the transition to sustained below replacement fertility (BRF) recently observed in a number of western countries, upon the transmission dynamics of measles [12].

Anatomical context of BRF1

  • The proximal element (-84 to -70) acts as a positive element in both these cell lines, and two rat liver nuclear proteins, BRF-1 and C/EBP, bind to two overlapping sites (-84 to -60 and -70 to -50, respectively) [13].

Associations of BRF1 with chemical compounds

  • Mutation of both serines to alanine uncouples BRF1 from PKB regulation, leading to constitutive mRNA decay even in the presence of stabilizing signals [14].
  • These findings demonstrate that BRF1 expression enhanced cisplatin sensitivity in HNSCC cells by reducing the levels of cIAP2 mRNA [8].
  • Hydroxyl radical footprinting of TFIIIB complexes and modeling the results to the TBP-DNA structure suggest that BRF and B" surround TBP on both faces of the TBP-DNA complex and provide an explanation for the exceptional stability of this complex [10].
  • The adsorption of some textile dyes by diatomite was investigated using Sif Blau BRF (SB), Everzol Brill Red 3BS (EBR), and Int Yellow 5GF (IY) [15].

Regulatory relationships of BRF1


Other interactions of BRF1

  • Using immunopurified complexes containing the cloned hBRFs, we show that while hBRF1 functions at the 5S, VA1, 7SL and EBER2 promoters, a different variant, hBRF2, is required at the human U6 promoter [16].
  • Alternatively spliced hBRF variants function at different RNA polymerase III promoters [16].
  • The C-terminal half of TFIIIB90 contains a high-mobility-group protein 2 (HMG2)-related domain and interacts strongly with TBP [17].
  • In addition, immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrate that substantial and similar molar amounts of TATA-binding protein (TBP) and TFIIIB90 can weakly associate with PTF at low salt conditions, but this association is dramatically reduced at high salt concentrations [18].
  • Three complementary mechanisms may therefore allow high-risk HPV to stimulate production of tRNA and 5S rRNA: E6-mediated removal of p53; E7-mediated neutralization of RB; and induction of Brf1 [19].


  1. Mature dendritic cells are superior to immature dendritic cells in expanding antigen-specific naive and memory CD8+ T cells. Tomiyama, M., Takahara, M., Egawa, K., Nieda, M. Anticancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Targeted destruction of androgen-sensitive and -insensitive prostate cancer cells and xenografts through luteinizing hormone receptors. Leuschner, C., Enright, F.M., Melrose, P.A., Hansel, W. Prostate (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Evaluation of the effects of elastic compression in patients with postphlebitic limbs by laser-Doppler flowmetry. Belcaro, G., Grigg, M., Vasdekis, S., Rulo, A., Christopoulos, D., Nicolaides, A. Phlébologie. (1988) [Pubmed]
  4. The behavioral risk factor surveys: II. Design, methods, and estimates from combined state data. Gentry, E.M., Kalsbeek, W.D., Hogelin, G.C., Jones, J.T., Gaines, K.L., Forman, M.R., Marks, J.S., Trowbridge, F.L. American journal of preventive medicine. (1985) [Pubmed]
  5. The ARE-dependent mRNA-destabilizing activity of BRF1 is regulated by protein kinase B. Schmidlin, M., Lu, M., Leuenberger, S.A., Stoecklin, G., Mallaun, M., Gross, B., Gherzi, R., Hess, D., Hemmings, B.A., Moroni, C. EMBO J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. TFIIIB is phosphorylated, disrupted and selectively released from tRNA promoters during mitosis in vivo. Fairley, J.A., Scott, P.H., White, R.J. EMBO J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Functional cloning of BRF1, a regulator of ARE-dependent mRNA turnover. Stoecklin, G., Colombi, M., Raineri, I., Leuenberger, S., Mallaun, M., Schmidlin, M., Gross, B., Lu, M., Kitamura, T., Moroni, C. EMBO J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Butyrate response factor 1 enhances cisplatin sensitivity in human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. Lee, S.K., Kim, S.B., Kim, J.S., Moon, C.H., Han, M.S., Lee, B.J., Chung, D.K., Min, Y.J., Park, J.H., Choi, D.H., Cho, H.R., Park, S.K., Park, J.W. Int. J. Cancer (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Expression of butyrate response factor 1 in HTLV-1-transformed cells and its transactivation by tax protein. Li, B., Fink, T., Ebbesen, P., Liu, X.D., Zachar, V. Arch. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Architecture of protein and DNA contacts within the TFIIIB-DNA complex. Colbert, T., Lee, S., Schimmack, G., Hahn, S. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Regulation of a TATA-binding protein-associated factor during cellular differentiation. Alzuherri, H.M., White, R.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Realistic population dynamics in epidemiological models: the impact of population decline on the dynamics of childhood infectious diseases. Measles in Italy as an example. Manfredi, P., Williams, J.R. Mathematical biosciences. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Transcriptional regulation of the apolipoprotein B100 gene: purification and characterization of trans-acting factor BRF-2. Zhuang, H., Chuang, S.S., Das, H.K. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. BRF1 Protein Turnover and mRNA Decay Activity Are Regulated by Protein Kinase B at the Same Phosphorylation Sites. Benjamin, D., Schmidlin, M., Min, L., Gross, B., Moroni, C. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. The removal of textile dyes by diatomite earth. Erdem, E., Cölgeçen, G., Donat, R. Journal of colloid and interface science. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Alternatively spliced hBRF variants function at different RNA polymerase III promoters. McCulloch, V., Hardin, P., Peng, W., Ruppert, J.M., Lobo-Ruppert, S.M. EMBO J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Structure and function of a human transcription factor TFIIIB subunit that is evolutionarily conserved and contains both TFIIB- and high-mobility-group protein 2-related domains. Wang, Z., Roeder, R.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Cloning and characterization of the beta subunit of human proximal sequence element-binding transcription factor and its involvement in transcription of small nuclear RNA genes by RNA polymerases II and III. Bai, L., Wang, Z., Yoon, J.B., Roeder, R.G. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Deregulation of RNA polymerase III transcription in cervical epithelium in response to high-risk human papillomavirus. Daly, N.L., Arvanitis, D.A., Fairley, J.A., Gomez-Roman, N., Morton, J.P., Graham, S.V., Spandidos, D.A., White, R.J. Oncogene (2005) [Pubmed]
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