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SLC2A4  -  solute carrier family 2 (facilitated...

Sus scrofa

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Disease relevance of GLUT4


High impact information on GLUT4

  • Assessment of 2-deoxy-glucose uptake in a small isolated muscle, flexor carpi radialis, showed that the 26L group, which had suboptimal energy balance and the greatest GLUT4 expression, had the highest insulin-independent glucose uptake but the lowest insulin-dependent increment: 20% compared with 70% in the other groups [3].
  • Insulin stimulates glucose transport largely by mediating translocation of the insulin-sensitive glucose transporter (GLUT4) from an intracellular compartment to the plasma membrane [4].
  • AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: To identify a GTPase of 24,000 M(r) which we recently found to co-localize with GLUT4 in cardiac muscle [5].
  • Co-localization with GLUT4 was assessed by continuous sucrose density gradient fractionation and immunoadsorption of GLUT4-containing vesicles [5].
  • In preconditioned myocardium, activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 leads to increased glucose uptake via enhanced GLUT-4 translocation [6].

Chemical compound and disease context of GLUT4


Biological context of GLUT4

  • Nucleotide sequences 1-138 and 139-246 of the GLUT4 cDNA share 78% sequence identity with exon 4a and 91% sequence identity with exon 4b of the human GLUT4 gene, respectively [7].
  • Development of a sensitive assay to quantify GLUT4 mRNA in porcine adipose tissue will enable us to conduct studies to increase our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which porcine somatotropin (pST) regulates GLUT4 gene expression [7].
  • Dobutamine infusion resulted in similar increases in cardiac contractility, oxygen consumption, and glucose uptake in both groups despite reductions of 50-65% in GLUT-4 and GLUT-1 protein in the diabetic group [8].

Anatomical context of GLUT4


Associations of GLUT4 with chemical compounds

  • The GLUT4 cDNA fragment was subcloned into pGEM-4Z vector to synthesize a highly specific riboprobe that hybridized only to human GLUT4 cDNA but not to human glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) cDNA [7].
  • In 5 additional hibernating pigs studied under resting fasted conditions, FDG uptake and GLUT4 translocation were also higher in the LAD region, in the absence of dobutamine stimulation [12].
  • Similarly, mRNA abundance for acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase and the glucose transport proteins Glut 1 and Glut 4 were not affected by Rac in either adipose depot [13].

Other interactions of GLUT4


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GLUT4


  1. Does hyperoxia affect glucose regulation and transport in the newborn? Bandali, K.S., Belanger, M.P., Wittnich, C. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Decreased myocardial glucose uptake during ischemia in diabetic swine. Stanley, W.C., Hall, J.L., Hacker, T.A., Hernandez, L.A., Whitesell, L.F. Metab. Clin. Exp. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Suboptimal energy balance selectively up-regulates muscle GLUT gene expression but reduces insulin-dependent glucose uptake during postnatal development. Katsumata, M., Burton, K.A., Li, J., Dauncey, M.J. FASEB J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation is mediated by a divergent intracellular signaling pathway. Haruta, T., Morris, A.J., Rose, D.W., Nelson, J.G., Mueckler, M., Olefsky, J.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Rab11 is associated with GLUT4-containing vesicles and redistributes in response to insulin. Kessler, A., Tomas, E., Immler, D., Meyer, H.E., Zorzano, A., Eckel, J. Diabetologia (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Activation of p38 MAPK and increased glucose transport in chronic hibernating swine myocardium. McFalls, E.O., Hou, M., Bache, R.J., Best, A., Marx, D., Sikora, J., Ward, H.B. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Cloning of a pig glucose transporter 4 cDNA fragment: use in developing a sensitive ribonuclease protection assay for quantifying low-abundance glucose transporter 4 mRNA in porcine adipose tissue. Chiu, P.Y., Chaudhuri, S., Harding, P.A., Kopchick, J.J., Donkin, S., Etherton, T.D. J. Anim. Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Impaired pyruvate oxidation but normal glucose uptake in diabetic pig heart during dobutamine-induced work. Hall, J.L., Stanley, W.C., Lopaschuk, G.D., Wisneski, J.A., Pizzurro, R.D., Hamilton, C.D., McCormack, J.G. Am. J. Physiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Prolonged treatment with the beta3-adrenergic agonist CL 316243 induces adipose tissue remodeling in rat but not in guinea pig: 2) modulation of glucose uptake and monoamine oxidase activity. Duffaut, C., Bour, S., Pr??vot, D., Marti, L., Testar, X., Zorzano, A., Carp??n??, C. J. Physiol. Biochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Apparent lack of beta 3-adrenoceptors and of insulin regulation of glucose transport in brown adipose tissue of guinea pigs. Himms-Hagen, J., Triandafillou, J., Begin-Heick, N., Ghorbani, M., Kates, A.L. Am. J. Physiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Mechanisms of insulin-dependent glucose transport into porcine and bovine skeletal muscle. Duhlmeier, R., Hacker, A., Widdel, A., von Engelhardt, W., Sallmann, H.P. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Myocardial glucose uptake after dobutamine stress in chronic hibernating swine myocardium. McFalls, E.O., Murad, B., Haspel, H.C., Marx, D., Sikora, J., Ward, H.B. Journal of nuclear cardiology : official publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Limitations of ractopamine to affect adipose tissue metabolism in swine. Liu, C.Y., Grant, A.L., Kim, K.H., Ji, S.Q., Hancock, D.L., Anderson, D.B., Mills, S.E. J. Anim. Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Effect of feed restriction on adipose tissue transcript concentrations in genetically lean and obese pigs. McNeel, R.L., Ding, S.T., Smith, E.O., Mersmann, H.J. J. Anim. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Porcine somatotrophin differentially down-regulates expression of the GLUT4 and fatty acid synthase genes in pig adipose tissue. Donkin, S.S., Chiu, P.Y., Yin, D., Louveau, I., Swencki, B., Vockroth, J., Evock-Clover, C.M., Peters, J.L., Etherton, T.D. J. Nutr. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. mRNA expression of glycolytic enzymes and glucose transporter proteins in ischemic myocardium with and without reperfusion. Feldhaus, L.M., Liedtke, A.J. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Validation of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for measuring the insulin-regulatable glucose transporter. Li, S.H., McNeill, J.H. Journal of pharmacological and toxicological methods. (2000) [Pubmed]
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